Tag Archives: HIV

Community Health: The Misleading Nature of CDC Reports on the HIV – AIDS Crisis in America . by Alice B. Clagett

Published on 4 November 2019

  • MISLEADING NATURE OF CDC HIV DATA
  • ‘INCIDENCE’ of HIV – AIDS
  • ‘PREVALENCE’ or ‘LIFETIME RISK’ of HIV – AIDS
    • How Family Wealth Planning for Future Generations Is Affected by HIV Prevalence
    • How May We Instill Hope in Our Families, Even Though They May Have HIV?
      • Careers Despite HIV
      • Continuing to Work Despite Blindness
  • RECENT CDC FIGURES ON HIV LIFETIME RISK
    • Table 1. Lifetime Risk of HIV Diagnosis, by Sex, Race/Ethnicity, and Risk Group, United States
      • Gender Inequality in Testing for HIV – AIDS
      • Lifetime Risk for Black Men Who Have Sex with Men
    • Table 2. Lifetime Risk of HIV Diagnosis, by State, United States
      • Great Disparity in Lifetime Risk, State by State
      • Possible Underreporting of Risk by States for Economic Reasons
      • Risk in Large Cities
    • Table 3. 10-Year Age-Conditional Risk (1 in n) of HIV Diagnosis Among HIV-Free Males and Females, Aged 20-50 Years, United States
      • Young Men Who Have Sex with Men Are at Greater Risk of New HIV Diagnosis
      • New HIV Diagnosis Risk for Young Men Who Have Sex with Men Varies Greatly by Race / Ethnicity
      • New HIV Diagnosis Risk for People Who Inject Drugs is Much Less Than for Men Who Have Sex with Men
      • New HIV Diagnosis Risk for Young Women Who Inject Drugs Is Twice as Great as for Young Men
      • Can We Extrapolate That HIV Diagnosis Risk for Young Women is Twice as Great as That for Young Men?
      • Importance of Gender Equality in HIV – AIDS Testing of Young People

Dear Ones,

MISLEADING NATURE OF CDC HIV DATA

Over the years I have written quite a few blogs on the HIV – AIDS global pandemic. Chicken that I am, I feel I have failed to convey my feeling that the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) is releasing data about the pandemic that greatly misrepresent the difficulties that lie before us as a nation. Perhaps this misrepresentation is intentional; perhaps it is political in nature … and perhaps not. Who can say?

The crux of the matter is that the data the CDC typically presents to the public have to do with disease ‘incidence’ rather than disease ‘prevalence’ or ‘lifetime risk’.

‘INCIDENCE’ of HIV – AIDS

As I understand it, disease ‘incidence’ has to do with how many new cases will be diagnosed next year, or the following year. These data are important to medical doctors, so that they can have sufficient medications on hand for the coming year.

‘PREVALENCE’ or ‘LIFETIME RISK’ of HIV – AIDS

‘Prevalence’, or ‘lifetime risk’ offers data on the likelihood that we and our families will contract HIV – AIDS during our lifetime. These are the data that I feel are hard to find in the CDC documents. Yet these are the data that help us plan for our families’ future.

How Family Wealth Planning for Future Generations Is Affected by HIV Prevalence

For instance, if our children, according to ‘lifetime risk’ data, are likely to contract HIV – AIDS in their lifetime, then we might ask: At what age are they likely to contract the disease?

If they contract it in early childhood, from what I have read, it is apparently likely they will die from it at a young age.

If they contract the disease at about the age of puberty, from what I have read, it is likely they will be unable to bear offspring that live more than a few years.

If our children contract the disease while their children are young, then apparently the risk is high that their young children will contract the disease from their parents through suckling milk, or transmission of bodily fluids while the family has bouts of cold or flu, or through childhood play.

Whether or not our children will contract the disease before they bear children is, I feel, very important to each family’s planning for the future. If there are no grandchildren, then that will make a big difference in the wealth that must be set aside for future generations. In addition, health care costs and the economic impact of sick leave downtime for our infected children and grandchildren is a wealth planning consideration.

How May We Instill Hope in Our Families, Even Though They May Have HIV?

If the lifetime risk of contracting HIV – AIDS is high, either because of lifestyle choices, or because of race or ethnicity, or because of the city or state or region of the United States in which we live, then now would be the time to plan with our children and grandchildren for a future that may involve infection.

Our families need to have some hope to live for, even though they may be infected.

I will say that, in my opinion, the CDC does a great job of glossing over the downside, and providing the upside of life with HIV – AIDS. So families can go to their site to learn that life with HIV is no big deal in the United States, any more.

By that is meant, I feel, that for those who are able to tolerate the drug regimens that have been developed, the prospect of a long and productive life is good. And that is something that might offer hope to our children: They may find that they, or their friends, contract the disease.

Careers Despite HIV. Maybe they may not be able to have families of their own, but they can look forward to fulfilling careers, and maybe good health for quite a long time.

Continuing to Work Despite Blindness. I note that, as of 2001 10-20% of people worldwide who had AIDS were becoming blind in one or both eyes …

Link: “HIV / AIDS and Blindness,” by P. G. Kestelyn and E. T. Cunningham, Jr, Bull World Health Organ 2001, 79(3), 208-213 … https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2566369/ ..

Thus, as a nation, we must retool as many industries as possible so that our eyesight-impaired HIV-positive children can continue on with their careers even should they have low vision.

RECENT CDC FIGURES ON HIV LIFETIME RISK

Today I found a pretty good pdf file offered by the CDC, that presents lifetime risk and also age-conditional risk by race and ethnicity, gender, and state. The data are from 2009-2013 …

Link: “Lifetime Risk of a Diagnosis of HIV Infection in the United States,” by Kristen L. Hess, PhD, MPH, Xiaohong Hu, MS, Amy Lansky, PhD, MPH, Jonathan Mermin, MD, and H. Irene Hall, PhD, MPH, HHS Public Access Author Manuscript, Ann. Epidemiol. published in final edited form as: Ann Epidemiol. 2017 April ; 27(4): 238-243, doi:10.1016/j.annepidem.2017.02.003 … https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/46891/cdc_46891_DS1.pdf? ..

By clicking on the above pdf link you can download the document to your computer.

Of special note are the three tables at the end of the document.

Table 1. Lifetime Risk of HIV Diagnosis, by Sex, Race/Ethnicity, and Risk Group, United States

Gender Inequality in Testing for HIV – AIDS. I note the total lifetime risk for men is 1 in 68 people, and for women 1 in 253 people. I believe this has to do with gender inequality in testing for HIV – AIDS. I feel the perception in the medical community is that MSM men are at risk for HIV – AIDS, and so, I feel, doctors are more likely to test men than women.

As I have mentioned priorly, it could be that bisexual men who are dating or married to women and raising families are also at risk, and that their wives and families are at risk and fail to test for HIV – AIDS because they are uninformed about their boyfriends’ or husbands’ exposure to risk.

I would like to see equal gender testing for HIV – AIDS, especially among couples with children where the boyfriend or husband tests positive for HIV. Then the medical community might, a few years from now, reassess the total lifetime risk for women.

Lifetime Risk for Black Men Who Have Sex with Men. I note the lifetime risk of contracting HIV – AIDS is 1 in 2 men. The overall lifetime risk for men who have sex with men is 1 in 6 men. From this I feel that women who want to have families ought to ascertain, before becoming pregnant, whether the prospective fathers in fact prefer to have sex with men. I feel that societal expectations, especially amongst Christians, make it especially difficult for Christian men to disclose this bias to prospective wives.

Given this, I feel all women hoping to have children ask those men they want to be intimate with for HIV test results, keeping in mind that chastity for one month after the last sexual contact is necessary before tests such as Oraquick can provide relatively accurate results. The last I read in the fine print of the Oraquick package was that there was a 10 percent error in this type of saliva test.  HIV blood tests, while more expensive, are a good deal more accurate; they are the best the medical community can offer presently.

Table 2. Lifetime Risk of HIV Diagnosis, by State, United States

From this table, I note a big range of risks, state by state, and in the District of Columbia.

Great Disparity in Lifetime Risk, State by State. For instance, the lifetime risk in Maryland is 1 in 56 people. But the risk in Montana is 1 in 674 people. The other states are in between these two extremes, with Georgia and Florida on the very risky side, and Idaho and North Dakota on the ‘unrisky’ side.

The first thought along these lines, for families who are concerned about HIV infection, might be (and I agree it seems logical) to relocate to a state that has less lifetime risk of infection.

Possible Underreporting of Risk by States for Economic Reasons. Amongst the states, I feel it likely that there may be HIV – AIDS ‘underreporting’, and that this may have to do with the tourist trade, or perceived need to attract new business to one’s home state. If this is true, I hope lifetime risk reporting will become more accurate in the next few years, as our states owe it to their residents to offer accurate figures, so that families can take steps for disease prevention and health care.

Risk in Large Cities. I note the lifetime risk of HIV – AIDS is 1 in 17 people in the District of Columbia, which is the heart of one of our large metropolitan areas. In past blogs, I have asked for a breakdown of lifetime risk for our large cities, as the very high risk in the District of Columbia may in fact indicate high risk in other large United States cities as well.

Table 3. 10-Year Age-Conditional Risk (1 in n) of HIV Diagnosis Among HIV-Free Males and Females, Aged 20-50 Years, United States

Young Men Who Have Sex with Men Are at Greater Risk of New HIV Diagnosis. From these data I see that overall, it is four times more likely that men who have sex with men, and who are 20 years of age will get a new diagnosis of HIV than will men who have sex with men, and who are 50 years of age.

New HIV Diagnosis Risk for Young Men Who Have Sex with Men Varies Greatly by Race / Ethnicity. For black men who have sex with men, the risk of new diagnosis of HIV is 1 in 4 at age 20 and 1 in 26 at age 50. For Hispanic men who have sex with men, the figures are 1 in 13 at age 20, and 1 in 40 at age 50. For White men who have sex with men, the figures are 1 in 39 at age 20 and 1 in 79 at age 50.

New HIV Diagnosis Risk for People Who Inject Drugs is Much Less Than for Men Who Have Sex with Men. Also, I see that people who inject drugs and are 20 years of age are somewhat less likely to get a new diagnosis of HIV than people who are 50 years of age; and that the overall new diagnosis risk for people who inject drugs is, across the age spectrum, very much less than for men who have sex with men.

New HIV Diagnosis Risk for Young Women Who Inject Drugs Is Twice as Great as for Young Men. Overall, for men who inject drugs the new diagnosis risk is 1 in 220 at age 20, and 1 in 167 at age 50. For women who inject drugs the new diagnosis risk is 1 in 108 at age 20 and 1 in 112 at age 50. That would mean that amongst people who inject drugs, women 20 years of age are about twice as likely to get a new HIV diagnosis as are men that age.

Can We Extrapolate That HIV Diagnosis Risk for Young Women is Twice as Great as That for Young Men? As both men and women who inject drugs know they are at risk, it seems to me fair to assume they are testing for HIV in a gender equal way. Thus the figures for new diagnosis risk for men and women who inject drugs might help provide an answer regarding the true new diagnosis risk for women who fail to test because they do not know their boyfriends or husbands are having sex with men.

We might go with the assumption that women who are dating or married to men who have sex with men have twice as much risk of new HIV diagnosis as the men. Amongst 20-year-old men having sex with men the new diagnosis risk is 1 in 15. Projecting from the drug injection risk, 20-year-old women who have sex with men who also have sex with men might be expected to have a new diagnosis risk of 1 in 8 (twice as risky as for the men).

I arrive at this estimate by creating a similar ratio, like this …

  • New diagnosis risk at 20 for men versus women who inject drugs = 1/220 for men versus 1 in 109 for women (about twice as risky for women)
  • Extrapolating new diagnosis risk at 20 for men versus women in relationships where the man has sex with men = 1 in 15 for men versus 1 in 8 (about twice as risky) for women

Importance of Gender Equality in HIV – AIDS Testing of Young People. The above estimate highlights how important gender equality in HIV – AIDS testing may be right now, as regards testing for young women.

From the above estimate we might also extrapolate the number of men who are not disclosing their bisexual lifestyle. If in fact it proves true that twice as many young women as young men, overall, are getting new HIV diagnoses, then it seems to me possible that as many as half of American men are engaging in sex with men as well as with their female sexual partners and wives.

What otherwise would account for young women having a higher incidence of new diagnoses than young men? I have read online that many young women have sex with two men by about age 20. If one of these two had HIV, and gave it to the young woman, then her new male partner would be at risk of infection as well. If this were to be so, then the risk for young women might be from young men who also have sex with men. And the risk for young men might be from having sex with either young men who have sex with men, or from having sex with young women who have done so. Do you not feel this to be true?

If so, then the feat that lies before the medical profession would be to find the most effective way of gathering information from young HIV positive men regarding their female sexual partners, and of persuading the men to allow their female sexual partners to test.

Blessings to all,

In love, light and joy,
Alice B. Clagett
I Am of the Stars

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Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

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politics, Centers for Disease Control, CDC, HIV, AIDS, community health, United States, health, HIV pandemic, health, Western medicine, abundance, prosperity, careers, child-rearing, social issues,

Increased Risk of HIV Infection Among Law Enforcement and Medical Personnel and Their Families? . by Alice B. Clagett

Written on 19 July 2016; published on 20 October 2019

Dear Ones,

Those who abide by the law all their lives tend to think that those who sometimes run sideways of the law ‘live in a world of their own’, a world apart from themselves. And in general, it seems to me that this is true.

On the other hand, when sexual intercourse occurs between imprisoned sex workers and law enforcement, then there may be increased risk of HIV and AIDS among the families of law enforcement personnel … even families who are very upstanding and law-abiding.

There is increased risk of contracting HIV whenever people come in contact with those who have HIV. Since sex workers have increased incidence of HIV, then those who deal with sex workers, whether or not in a sexual context, would be subject to some degree of increased risk. This could easily be seen to apply to doctors, nurses, health workers in drug rehabilitation facilities, and law enforcement personnel.

Apropos of these potentially disconcerting possibilities: I have heard that HIV tests with very high accuracy, similar to that from tests at a doctor’s office, are now available for about $40 from drug store chains, and for less money at Walmart. That is a very good thing, considering the present social stigma of the ‘hives’ (HIV) label.

In love, light and joy,
I Am of the Stars

MORE INFORMATION

The information in this blog originally appeared as a postscript in this blog …

Link: “Ought Law Enforcement Have Sex with Jailed Sex Workers?” by Alice B. Clagett, written and published on 19 July 2016 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-5SW ..

I thought it best to break it out as a separate blog, so that it will be easier to search for and find.

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Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

Except where otherwise noted, “Awakening with Planet Earth” by Alice B. Clagett … https://awakeningwithplanetearth.com … is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-SA 4.0) … https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/ ..

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community health, HIV, hives, AIDS, law enforcement, doctors, sex workers, Western medicine, nurses, drug rehabilitation, AIDS stigma,

Call to Action: AIDS Virus Sound and Sound Healing . by Alice B. Clagett

Filmed on 3 April 2019; published on 5 August 2019

  • VIDEO BY ALICE
  • SUMMARY OF THE VIDEO
    • AIDS Virus, channeled by Alice B. Clagett, Soundtrack and Words
    • Photos by Alice

Dear Ones,

Here is a video on the sound that the HIV virus makes as it swims through the bloodstream, and the idea of testing healing the virus through the languages of sound. There is an edited Summary after the video …

VIDEO BY ALICE

SUMMARY OF THE VIDEO

Hello, Dear Ones, It’s Alice. I Am of the Stars.

I have a request, a Call to Action, for the healing through languages of Light and sound crew … the Lightworkers. Today I was listening to other people, on the astral plane, and I found out what the AIDS virus sounds like. So the question is: How to create a language of sound or language of Light healing modality to help heal this virus.

Here is what it sounds like … It sounds like the sound I am about to make, but the sound itself attracts and carries negative astral chatter with it. It sounds like a kind of a forced, sibilant or hissing whisper, something like this …

AIDS Virus
Channeled by Alice B. Clagett
Soundtrack and Words
3 April 2019

 

hmm hmm hmm  (x3)

Can you hear that? That sound … a little bit like a very low, extremely quiet motor, maybe the sound of the way it swims through the bloodstream, is the sound that attracts the negative astral energy that probably causes the damage.

Again, it sounds a little like this … [Then is heard the second half of the above soundtrack.]

So what we need is a contrasting sound, maybe through music, that will break up the sound of the virus swimming, that will interrupt the flow of the virus. I think that will help very much. I am looking forward to one of you coming up with something of that nature.

Along those lines I have, to offer …

  • It could be that certain pure pitches will do that … a pure pitch of sound, if a person listens to it.
  • It might be that the Fibonacci sequence would do it.
  • It is possible that music such as Bach or Beethoven might do it.
  • And there are the newer forms of music too … the music that is played by the Lightworkers.

Good luck, you all! I hope we find the answer really soon.

You all take care.

In love, light and joy,
I Am of the Stars

Photos by Alice

Image: “Tiger Lily 1,” by Alice B. Clagett, 3 April 2019, CC BY-SA 4.0

Image: “Tiger Lily 1,” by Alice B. Clagett, 3 April 2019, CC BY-SA 4.0

Image: “Tiger Lily 2,” by Alice B. Clagett, 3 April 2019, CC BY-SA 4.0

Image: “Tiger Lily 2,” by Alice B. Clagett, 3 April 2019, CC BY-SA 4.0

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Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License

Except where otherwise noted, “Awakening with Planet Earth” by Alice B. Clagett … https://awakeningwithplanetearth.com … is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-SA 4.0) … https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/ ..

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AIDS, HIV, virus, healing, languages of Light and sound, pure pitch, Fibonacci sequence, Bach, Beethoven, Lightworkers, alternative medicine,

2016 HIV Lifetime Risk Statistics from Centers for Disease Control . by Alice B. Clagett

Published on 30 March 2019

  • LIFETIME RISK OF HIV DIAGNOSIS BY STATE
  • CALL TO ACTION: RESEARCH QUESTIONS REGARDING THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA HIV STATISTIC
  • LIFETIME RISK OF HIV DIAGNOSIS BY TRANSMISSION GROUP
  • LIFETIME RISK OF HIV DIAGNOSIS AMONG MSM BY RACE/ETHNICITY
  • LIFETIME RISK OF HIV DIAGNOSIS BY RACE/ETHNICITY
  • FOUR SCENARIOS OF THE POTENTIAL IMPACT OF EXPANDED HIV TESTING, TREATMENT AND PrEP IN THE UNITED STATES, 2015-2020

Dear Ones,

Today I found out that the lifetime risk of HIV infection published by Truvada, and referred to in an earlier blog of mine, originated with a 2016 Centers for Disease Control study which is public domain. Here is the overall report …

Link: “Supplemental Report: Estimated HIV Incidence and Prevalence in the United States, 2010-2016,” in “HIV Surveillance Report: Supplemental Report,” Vol. 24, No. 1, by Centers for Disease Control (CDC), National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention … https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/pdf/library/reports/surveillance/cdc-hiv-surveillance-supplemental-report-vol-24-1.pdf ..

Here are the CDC graphics …

LIFETIME RISK OF HIV DIAGNOSIS BY STATE

Image: “Lifetime Risk of HIV Diagnosis by State,” from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2016 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, published 2016; accessed 8 June 2017 … http://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/newsroom/2016/croi-2016.html … public domain

Image: “Lifetime Risk of HIV Diagnosis by State,” from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2016 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, published 2016; accessed 8 June 2017 … http://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/newsroom/2016/croi-2016.html … public domain

Here is text for the lifetime risk of contracting HIV, by United States state …

STATE RISK
DC 1 in 13
MD 1 in 49
GA 1 in 51
FL 1 in 54
LA 1 in 56
NY 1 in 69
TX 1 in 81
NJ 1 in 84
MS 1 in 85
SC 1 in 86
NC 1 in 93
DE 1 in 96
AL 1 in 97
STATE RISK
NV 1 in 98
IL 1 in 101
CA 1 in 102
TN 1 in 103
PA 1 in 115
VA 1 in 115
MA 1 in 121
AZ 1 in 138
CT 1 in 139
RI 1 in 143
OH 1 in 150
MO 1 in 155
AR 1 in 159
STATE RISK
MI 1 in 167
OK 1 in 168
KY 1 in 173
IN 1 in 183
WA 1 in 185
CO 1 in 191
NM 1 in 196
HI 1 in 202
OR 1 in 214
MN 1 in 216
KS 1 in 262
NE 1 in 264

 

STATE RISK
WV 1 in 302
WI 1 in 307
IA 1 in 342
UT 1 in 366
ME 1 in 373
AK 1 in 384
SD 1 in 402
NH 1 in 411
WY 1 in 481
VT 1 in 527
ID 1 in 547
MT 1 in 578
ND 1 in 670

CALL TO ACTION: RESEARCH QUESTIONS REGARDING THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA HIV STATISTIC

I note in particular the lifetime risk in the District of Columbia is 1 in 13 people. I have a question as to the cause. Here are my thoughts as to lines of inquiry …

  • As the District of Columbia is a high density urban area, could it be that other high density urban areas in the United States are also among the highest risk?
    • To answer this question, a researcher would have to pull out the relevant statistics for cities from those for rural areas, and see if there is a statistically significant difference between urban and rural areas.
    • Alternatively, we could look at increasing population density in each of the above states, and see if it correlates with increasing risk.
    • If the answer to this question turns out to be ‘yes’, then I ask that researchers look into whether the presence of an international airport or an international port of call in a city increases lifetime risk of infection.
  • Could it be that the District of Columbia has experienced the first of regional ‘HIV blooms’, bell curve increases, and that we might expect the same in other areas? If so, when?
    • To answer this question, we would need to see an annual graph on lifetime risk in the District of Columbia, optimally going back 10 years. If it were found, say, that a District of Columbia ‘bloom’ happened in the time interval from 2014-2016, a three-year time span, then that information would be very helpful in planning for education, prevention and treatment of HIV in other areas of the United States, for a three-year interval starting in 2019.
    • As the CDC data are three years old, and if there was a ‘bloom’ in the District of Columbia from 2014-2016, then we might posit that there has been a similar bloom elsewhere in the United States in the three-year interval from 2016-2019. That might provide a basis for extrapolating to the true current situation in the United States, with regard to the pandemic. My thought is that the current situation might be much more intense than is surmised, and that this discrepancy might be due to the staleness of the CDC statistics and the quick rise in prevalence instanced by the steep slope of the epidemic bell curve (about which I have written in past years).
  • Could it be that the District of Columbia high risk has to do with the presence of international visitors? If so, could this mean that AIDS lifetime risk in other countries has been underreported or underestimated?
    • Another way to assess international visitor risk would be to test all military personnel who have been on away missions.

LIFETIME RISK OF HIV DIAGNOSIS BY TRANSMISSION GROUP

Image: “Lifetime Risk of HIV Diagnosis by Transmission Group,” from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2016 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, published 2016; accessed 8 June 2017 … http://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/newsroom/2016/croi-2016.html … public domain

Image: “Lifetime Risk of HIV Diagnosis by Transmission Group,” from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2016 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, published 2016; accessed 8 June 2017 … http://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/newsroom/2016/croi-2016.html … public domain

This image is pretty standard, and I feel pretty misleading. For MSM (men having sex with men) the lifetime risk is 1 in 6. For women who inject drugs, 1 in 23. For men who inject drugs, 1 in 36. For heterosexual women, 1 in 241. and for heterosexual men, 1 in 473.

My concerns regarding this table are several. I wonder, for instance, whether the MSM category ought to be rephrased and reanalyzed in terms of men and women who are recipients of rectal sex, and this statistic compared to that for men who are donors of rectal sex.

Also significant would be the extent to which HIV screening varies for the various groups in the table. My thought on this is that we might find that men and women who inject drugs are more frequently tested for HIV concomitant with drug detox protocols instituted through emergency treatment of drug overdoses.

Then with regard to the big difference in the risk for heterosexual women and heterosexual men, how is it that the risk for heterosexual women is so very much greater than that for heterosexual men? Is it that women are more likely to test for HIV than men?

Could it be that a statistically significant portion of men described as heterosexual are bisexual, and are testing separately, under alias, as MSM, so as to avoid social stigma and preserve the appearance of a straight marriage? For such a segment of undeclared bisexual men married to straight women, they might be dosing their wives with HIV prophylactics without their knowledge, or alternatively, their wives may be infected and untreated, largely, I feel, because the CDC risk factors do not include married, straight women.

The question is, how large might a putative, undeclared bisexual and married male segment of the population be? If that were known, then we might better plan for diagnosis and treatment in the coming decade.

LIFETIME RISK OF HIV DIAGNOSIS BY RACE/ETHNICITY

Image: “Lifetime Risk of HIV Diagnosis by Race/Ethnicity,” from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2016 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, published 2016; accessed 8 June 2017 … http://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/newsroom/2016/croi-2016.html … public domain

Image: “Lifetime Risk of HIV Diagnosis by Race/Ethnicity,” from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2016 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, published 2016; accessed 8 June 2017 … http://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/newsroom/2016/croi-2016.html … public domain

This is a well-known set of statistics. The highest racial-ethnic category with regard to lifetime risk of HIV diagnosis is African American men: 1 in 20. Next are African American women: 1 in 48. Possibly socioeconomic disadvantage may negatively influence prevention and medical care in this group?

Then Hispanic men: 1 in 48 … and Hispanic women, 1 in 227. Guessing that, because of the influence of Catholicism, many Hispanic men may be married to Hispanic women, and because of the Church’s stance on homosexuality as an ‘objective disorder’ may not be willing to admit homosexual liaisons to their wives. The wives of such men might be at risk and unaware of it, and so, not testing. They might pass on due to AIDS-related issues, without being treated for these issues.

Then for White men, the risk is 1 in 132; whereas, for White women the risk is 1 in 880. Either White women are extremely lucky, in regard to their lifetime HIV risk, or else they decline to test, for reasons of social status. If the latter turns out to be so, then I feel the turning point, for white women, will be when the pandemic reaches such proportions in the United States that it is clear their friends and neighbors have it, and so it will be socially acceptable to test for and treat HIV infection.

LIFETIME RISK OF HIV DIAGNOSIS AMONG MSM BY RACE/ETHNICITY

Image: “Lifetime Risk of HIV Diagnosis among MSM by Race/Ethnicity,” from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2016 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, published 2016; accessed 8 June 2017 … http://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/newsroom/2016/croi-2016.html … public domain

Image: “Lifetime Risk of HIV Diagnosis among MSM by Race/Ethnicity,” from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2016 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, published 2016; accessed 8 June 2017 … http://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/newsroom/2016/croi-2016.html … public domain

From this table, the lifetime risk for men having sex with men (MSM) is 50% … 1 in 2 people, for African American MSM. For Hispanic, MSM the risk is half that … 25%, or 1 in 4. For White MSM, the risk is 9%, or 1 in 11.

FOUR SCENARIOS OF THE POTENTIAL IMPACT OF EXPANDED HIV TESTING, TREATMENT AND PrEP IN THE UNITED STATES, 2015-2020

I like the below graph very much, as it shows how helpful testing and treatment would be in slowing the progress of the pandemic here in the United States. This slowing of the progress of the disease would, I feel, ease the effect of the pandemic on manpower, and on the U.S. economy. It would also make it easier to provide adequate education and medical care for HIV-infected patients. In terms of human suffering, as well, I feel that optimization of education, prevention, and treatment are of paramount importance.

As can be seen in the below graph, were this optimization to have occurred beginning in 2015, then in 2020 new infections would have been reduced from 265,330 to 80,270. That would have been a reduction of 70% … which is to say, a slowing of the rate of progress of the disease by 70%.

In future five-year intervals, we might expect the same statistic to apply. This, surely, is ample impetus for optimizing HIV education, prevention, and treatment as swiftly and thoroughly as possible.

Image: “Four Scenarios of the Potential Impact of Expanded HIV Testing, Treatment and PrEP in the United States, 2015-2020,” from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2016 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, published 2016; accessed 8 June 2017 … http://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/newsroom/2016/croi-2016.html … public domain
This bar graph shows four scenarios of the potential impact of expanded HIV testing, treatment and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use in the United States from 2015 to 2020.
The first bar shows that at current testing and treatment rates, there would be 265,330 new HIV infections in the U.S between 2015 and 2020.
The second bar shows that increasing the use of PrEP among high-risk populations (40 percent of men-who-have-sex-with-men; 10 percent of injecting drug users; and 10% of high-risk heterosexuals) could avert 48,221 new infections. This would mean that only 217,109 new HIV infections would occur in the U.S. from 2015 to 2020.
The third bar shows that increasing the number of people diagnosed with HIV who are on treatment to 85 percent, and ensuring that 60 percent achieve viral suppression would avert 88,908. Increasing PrEP use among high-risk populations at these higher treatment rates would avert an additional 31,988 new infections, reducing the total number of new HIV infections to 144,434.
The final bar shows that if we achieve the targets of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy (85 percent of people diagnosed are on treatment and 80 percent of those achieve viral suppression), we would avert 168,132 infections, with an additional 16,928 HIV infections prevented if PrEP was used as well, resulting in only 80,270 new HIV infections from 2015 to 2020.

Image: “Four Scenarios of the Potential Impact of Expanded HIV Testing, Treatment and PrEP in the United States, 2015-2020,” from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2016 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, published 2016; accessed 8 June 2017 … http://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/newsroom/2016/croi-2016.html … public domain

This bar graph shows four scenarios of the potential impact of expanded HIV testing, treatment and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use in the United States from 2015 to 2020.

The first bar shows that at current testing and treatment rates, there would be 265,330 new HIV infections in the U.S between 2015 and 2020.

The second bar shows that increasing the use of PrEP among high-risk populations (40 percent of men-who-have-sex-with-men; 10 percent of injecting drug users; and 10% of high-risk heterosexuals) could avert 48,221 new infections. This would mean that only 217,109 new HIV infections would occur in the U.S. from 2015 to 2020.

The third bar shows that increasing the number of people diagnosed with HIV who are on treatment to 85 percent, and ensuring that 60 percent achieve viral suppression would avert 88,908. Increasing PrEP use among high-risk populations at these higher treatment rates would avert an additional 31,988 new infections, reducing the total number of new HIV infections to 144,434.

The final bar shows that if we achieve the targets of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy (85 percent of people diagnosed are on treatment and 80 percent of those achieve viral suppression), we would avert 168,132 infections, with an additional 16,928 HIV infections prevented if PrEP was used as well, resulting in only 80,270 new HIV infections from 2015 to 2020.

In love, light and joy,
I Am of the Stars

Link: “New HIV/AIDS Statistics from Truvada,” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 25 February 2019 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-bOa ..

Link: “Compendium: HIV Pandemic,” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 2 March 2019 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-bPl ..

…………………..

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health, HIV, AIDS, CDC, Centers for Disease Control, community health, calls to action,

Overview: Calls to Action regarding the HIV / AIDS Pandemic . by Alice B. Clagett *

Published on 2 March 2019; revised

Dear Ones,

Here is a list of Calls to Action regarding the HIV/AIDS Pandemic …

Link: “Call to Action: Request for Research on Bounceback from AIDS Status to Early HIV Status,” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 25 September 2018 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-ac5 ..

Link: “Call to Action: Request for Research on Correlation of HIV Titer in Sexual Partners with Disease Progression,” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 25 September 2018 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-ac8 ..

Link: “Call to Action for Governor Jerry Brown: Explain Social Security Number Tagging of HIV-Positive Californians,” by Alice B. Clagett, filmed on 24 August 2018 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-adO ..

Link: “Call to Action: HIV Transmission Rates and Other News Updates on HIV/AIDS,” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 24 August 2018 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-a3O ..

Link: “Call to Action: Can Viruses Be Cured with Perfect Pitch?” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 3 April 2018 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-8×3 ..

Link: “Calls to Action: Is AIDS Connected to Tuberculosis? … by Soul Guidance,” referral by Alice B. Clagett, published on 20 December 2017 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-85e ..

Link: “Call to Action: On Alzheimer’s, HIV/AIDS and ‘Naegleria fowleri’ Mitigation Through Diet,” by Alice B. Clagett, filmed on 23 August 2017; published on 17 September 2017 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-7GH ..

In love, light and joy,
I Am of the Stars
…………………..

Creative Commons License
Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
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calls to action, HIV, AIDS, HIV pandemic, AIDS pandemic, community health, my favorites,

Compendium: HIV / AIDS Pandemic . by Alice B. Clagett *

Published on 2 March 2019; revised

  • HIV/AIDS PANDEMIC … SHORT LIST OF THE MOST IMPORTANT BLOGS
  • HIV/AIDS PANDEMIC … LONG LIST OF ALL THE IMPORTANT BLOGS

Dear Ones,

Here is a compendium of my more substantive blogs on the HIV pandemic. The first list has the most important blogs and overviews. The second list includes all the important blogs.

In each case, the most recent is at the top of the list. Those that I find most interesting are bolded …

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
HIV/AIDS PANDEMIC … SHORT LIST OF THE MOST IMPORTANT BLOGS

Link: “Call to Action: Mortification of the Flesh and Christian Charity in Times of Crisis,” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 11 May 2019 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-cJu ..

Link: “2016 HIV Lifetime Risk Statistics from Centers for Disease Control,” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 30 March 2019 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-c3f ..

Link: “Overview: Calls to Action regarding the HIV/AIDS Pandemic,” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 2 March 2019 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-bQu ..

Link: “New HIV/AIDS Statistics,” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 25 February 2019 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-bOa ..

Link: “How Many Ex-Felons and Non-Ex-Felons in California Have HIV?” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 15 October 2018 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-arq ..

Link: “Wild Astral Rumors About Felon Rehabilitation,” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 2 March 2018 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-8qvSee: THE PROSPECT OF NORMAL LIFE FOR SCHOOLCHILDREN INFECTED WITH HIV

Link: “Overview: One-Upmanship and the Human Energy System,” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 9 July 2017 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-7qP ..

Link: “Overview of Surgical Risk, HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis, and Hard Drugs,” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 17 October 2016 … http://wp.me/p2Rkym-6gY ..

Link: “Overview of the HIV/AIDS Pandemic, and of Data Suppression by the Centers for Disease Control,” by Alice B. Clagett, * published on 10 July 2016 … http://wp.me/p2Rkym-5QE ..

Link: “Thoughts on Curing AIDS, and on Modern Medical Healing,” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 31 March 2016 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-50W ..

Link: “The HIV/AIDS Epidemic Worldwide,” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 11 March 2016 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-4YV ..

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
HIV/AIDS PANDEMIC … LONG LIST OF ALL THE IMPORTANT BLOGS

Link: “HIV – AIDS Statistics by United States Metropolitan Area,” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 2 June 2019 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-cZI ..

Link: “Overview: Calls to Action regarding the HIV/AIDS Pandemic,” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 2 March 2019 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-bQu ..

Link: “New HIV/AIDS Statistics,” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 25 February 2019 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-bOa ..

Link: “How Many Ex-Felons and Non-Ex-Felons in California Have HIV?” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 15 October 2018 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-arq ..

Link: “Call to Action: Request for Research on Bounceback from AIDS Status to Early HIV Status,” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 25 September 2018 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-ac5 ..

Link: “Call to Action: Request for Research on Correlation of HIV Titer in Sexual Partners with Disease Progression,” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 25 September 2018 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-ac8 ..

Link: “Call to Action: HIV Transmission Rates and Other News Updates on HIV/AIDS,” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 24 August 2018 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-a3O ..

Link: “Does ‘Safe Sex’ Prevent HIV/AIDS Transmission?” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 14 June 2018 https://wp.me/p2Rkym-9qP ..

Link: “HIV/AIDS ‘Blooms’ in Groups: Alpha Male Infection and Transmission,” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 14 June 2018 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-9qv ..

Link: “Call to Action: Can Viruses Be Cured with Perfect Pitch?” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 3 April 2018 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-8×3 ..

Link: “Wild Astral Rumors About Felon Rehabilitation,” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 2 March 2018 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-8qvSee: THE PROSPECT OF NORMAL LIFE FOR SCHOOLCHILDREN INFECTED WITH HIV

Link: “Community Health: Update on the HIV/AIDS Pandemic,” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 31 January 2018 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-8h8 ..

Link: “Calls to Action: Is AIDS Connected to Tuberculosis? … by Soul Guidance,” referral by Alice B. Clagett, published on 20 December 2017 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-85e ..

Link: “Hepatitis and HIV/AIDS Testing, Vaccines and Treatments,” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 9 October 2017 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-7Nm ..

Link: “Hepatitis and HIV/AIDS Stigma: Shaking Off Fears and Planning for Our Well-Being,” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 9 October 2017 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-7Nk ..

Link: “Call to Action: On Alzheimer’s, HIV/AIDS and ‘Naegleria fowleri’ Mitigation Through Diet,” by Alice B. Clagett, filmed on 23 August 2017 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-7GH ..

Link: “Overview: One-Upmanship and the Human Energy System,” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 9 July 2017 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-7qP ..

Link: “HIV/AIDS Pandemic: Suggestions for Stabilizing the United States Population,” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 23 June 2017 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-7oL ..

Link: “Overview of Surgical Risk, HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis, and Hard Drugs,” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 17 October 2016 … http://wp.me/p2Rkym-6gY ..

Link: “Apollyon (Abaddon), the Drive to Competition, and the HIV/AIDS Virus,” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 10 October 2016 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-6fh ..

Link: “The HIV/AIDS Pandemic and the American Work Force,” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 8 October 2016 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-6dZ ..

Link: “Increased Risk of HIV Infection Among Law Enforcement and Medical Personnel and Their Families?” by Alice B. Clagett, written on 19 July 2016; published on 20 October 2019 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-eEm ..

Link: “Overview of the HIV/AIDS Pandemic, and of Data Suppression by the Centers for Disease Control,” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 10 July 2016 … http://wp.me/p2Rkym-5QE ..

Link: “Whitewashing Effect of Data Smoothing for US Government 2014 HIV/AIDS Incidence ‘State View’ Map,” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 6 July 2016 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-5PT ..

Link: “The HIV/AIDS Pandemic … Extrapolation on U.S. HIV Incidence for 2014 and 2015,” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 5 July 2016 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-5Mb ..

Link: “Suppression of 2014 Data on the US HIV/AIDS Pandemic,” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 17 June 2016 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-5zq ..

Link: “Thoughts on Curing AIDS, and on Modern Medical Healing,” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 31 March 2016 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-50W ..

Link: “The HIV/AIDS Epidemic Worldwide,” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 11 March 2016 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-4YV ..

Link: “Hepatitis, HIV/AIDS, and Hard Drugs,” referrals by Alice B. Clagett, published on 1 December 2015 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-4md ..

Link: “Surgical Glove Perforation, HIV/AIDS, and Hepatitis,” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 7 October 2015 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-471 ..

Link: “Sex Workers, HIV/AIDS, and Hepatitis,” by Alice B. Clagett, filmed on 7 October 2015 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-46V ..

In love, light and joy,
I Am of the Stars
…………………..

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Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
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HIV, AIDS, HIV pandemic, AIDS pandemic, Community Health, my favorites,

New HIV / AIDS Statistics from Truvada . by Alice B. Clagett

Published on 25 February 2019; slightly revised on 2 March 2019; revised on 6 March 2019

  • UNITED STATES: STATES WITH HIGHEST HIV INCIDENCE
  • GREATER INCIDENCE OF HIV IN THE SOUTHERN UNITED STATES
  • STATISTICS FOR RECIPIENTS OF RECTAL SEX
  • STATISTICS FOR MEN HAVING SEX WITH MEN, AND THE ISSUE OF SECRET MALE BISEXUALITY
    • Impact of Secret Bisexuality on Life Expectancy of Wives and Children
  • THE GREATER HIV INCIDENCE AMONGST HISPANICS AND AFRICAN AMERICANS
  • THE VERY HIGH TRANSGENDER HIV STATISTICS
  • DIAGNOSED HIV INCIDENCE VERY DIFFERENT FOR MEN AND WOMEN IN THE UNITED STATES
  • CRITICAL IMPORTANCE OF WOMEN AND CHILDREN, AS WELL AS MEN, TESTING FOR HIV ANNUALLY
  • HOW TO GET AN HIV TEST
  • THE DANGER OF YOUNG CHILDREN CONTRACTING HIV
    • Is the Drug Trade Targeting Young Children?
    • Are Youth Contracting HIV from Drug Peddlers?
    • Likelihood of ‘Blooms’ of HIV amongst Youth in Communities Nationwide
    • Increase in After-School Petty Crime May Forewarn of Youth HIV ‘Blooms’
  • LIFE EXPECTANCY FOR CHILDREN WHO HAVE HIV
  • HOMELESS AND OUT-OF-WORK CITIZENS AS A MANPOWER RESOURCE FOR TOWNS HARD HIT BY THE GLOBAL PANDEMIC
  • THE IMPORTANCE OF NURTURING HIV POSITIVE NEWBORNS
  • 300-YEAR PROJECTION WITH REGARD TO MINIMUM VIABLE HUMAN POPULATION
  • THE OUTLOOK FOR HUMANKIND

Dear Ones,

Those of you who have been reading my Community Health blogs on the global HIV-AIDS pandemic may know that I have felt for some time now that HIV/AIDS incidence in the United States has been under-reported, partly because of the AIDS stigma, and partly because of insufficient testing in the United States, including testing of men, women and children, regardless of their perceived sexual orientation; or, in the case of young children, of their perceived degree of sexual activity.

I have come across new statistics from Truvada on the HIV/AIDS pandemic in the United States. According to Truvada, currently 1 in 100 Americans are likely to be diagnosed HIV-positive in their lifetime …

Link: “Truvada” … https://www.truvada.com/hcp/guidelines?utm_source=truvada_prep&utm_medium=referral ..

That page is full of information and very long; fortunately I found that if I right mouse click on the lower left part of the page, the part that has statistics in it, I have the option “Print Friendly and PDF,” which worked great for me using Chrome for Windows.

I see Truvada’s source for this information is …

Link: “2016 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections,” by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, published 2016, accessed 8 June 2017 … http://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/newsroom/2016/croi-2016.html ….

UNITED STATES: STATES WITH HIGHEST HIV INCIDENCE

According to the Truvada website, the statistics vary greatly from state to state, here in America. For instance, in Washington, DC, the lifetime risk of HIV diagnosis is 1 in every 13 people. In Maryland, the risk is 1 in 49. Other states with risk ranging from 1 in 51 to 1 in 97 (which is to say, among the highest in the nation) are Georgia, Florida, Louisiana, New York, Texas, New Jersey, Mississippi, South Carolina, North Carolina, Delaware, and Alabama (the first listed being the states with higher incidence).

States with risk ranging from 1 in 402 to 1 in 670 (which is to say, among the lowest in the nation) are South Dakota, New Hampshire, Wyoming, Vermont, Idaho, Montana, and North Dakota (the last listed being the states with lower incidence).

GREATER INCIDENCE OF HIV IN THE SOUTHERN UNITED STATES

Here is a map from the Centers for Disease Control CDC), using 2015 data, indicating that the Southern states … which comprise 38% of the United States population that year, accounted for 51% of annual HIV infections, and 51% of undiagnosed infections … https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/images/policies/cdc-hiv-south-burden.png … I note their definition of Southern states includes states from Texas to Maryland, and south to Florida.

I note as well that many of these states have voted not to offer expanded Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act …

Link: “Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act Medicaid expansion by state,” by Kurykh, 19 September 2013 …   https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medicaid#/media/File:ACA_Medicaid_expansion_by_state.svg ..

That might affect availability of healthcare for HIV and AIDS in some low per capita income Southern areas. It looks like the Centers for Disease Control have recognized the need for more HIV and AIDS health resources to be dedicated to the South, and have begun providing these …

Link: “HIV Prevention in the South: Aligning CDC’s Funding with Current HIV Trends” (2010 and 2015 data) https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/pdf/policies/cdc-hiv-south-graphic.pdf ..

STATISTICS FOR RECIPIENTS OF RECTAL SEX

According to the Truvada statistics, among men who have sex with men, receptive rectal sex partners are at high risk of contracting HIV … 13 times more so than are insertive partners.

Truvada does not have statistics on this, but I feel the risk may be just as high (and for similar biological reasons) for women who are receptive rectal sex partners. For more on this, from an energetic and intuitive point of view, search my site for the word: rectal

STATISTICS FOR MEN HAVING SEX WITH MEN, AND THE ISSUE OF SECRET MALE BISEXUALITY

Again according to the Truvada statistics, the risk of HIV infection is 83 times greater amongst men having sex with men, than it is amongst heterosexual men. This brings up the question how many men are bisexual, passing for heterosexual? As an intuitive, I feel this number to be a good deal higher than the socially accepted notion.

For a married bisexual man, passing as purely heterosexual for the sake of social convention, I feel the likelihood of HIV infection might be close to that for purely homosexual men.

Impact of Secret Bisexuality on Life Expectancy of Wives and Children

As well, I feel the likelihood would be high that a secretly bisexual man might not share a positive HIV status with his wife. The results of this secrecy would be decreased life expectancy for the wife, due to her ignorance of the need for antiretroviral treatment (ART), and the risk of the wife passing on HIV to her newborns, and to her older children, through bodily fluids contact (due to her ignorance of the need to take precautions).

THE GREATER HIV INCIDENCE AMONGST HISPANICS AND AFRICAN AMERICANS

The greater Truvada-reported incidence of HIV infection amongst MSM Hispanics and African Americans may have to do with socioeconomic status and affordability of condoms; this is just an intuitive thought … I have no way to back it up factually.

THE VERY HIGH TRANSGENDER HIV STATISTICS

According to the Truvada statistics, of the 1.4 million transgender Americans, about 1 in 5 are HIV positive. Truvada estimates the risk that a transgender woman will have HIV is 34 times more than that for adults who identify with their birth sex.

Intuitively speaking, this may have to do with a greater proportion of transgender Americans being polyamorous, or maybe being employed as sex workers? For instance, in Wikipedia I read that about 13 percent of transgender women have participated in the sex trade …

Link: “Transgender sex worker,” in Wikipedia … https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transgender_sex_worker ..

… compared to 1 percent of American women overall …

Link: “How Many Prostitutes Are in the United States and the Rest of the World?” in ProCon.org, 11 January 2018 … https://prostitution.procon.org/view.answers.php?questionID=000095 ..

My thought on that is, it could be that the greater the number of sexual partners, either through polyamory or through sex work, the greater the likelihood of contracting an STD, including an increased likelihood of contracting HIV. This is just a thought; I do not have the statistics on it.

DIAGNOSED HIV INCIDENCE VERY DIFFERENT FOR MEN AND WOMEN IN THE UNITED STATES

Again according to Truvada, the risk of men being diagnosed as HIV positive is more than three times greater than that for women. I believe this may be because men are more aware of the need to test, and if they test positive, are unwilling to let their wives know that, because of the social stigma.

CRITICAL IMPORTANCE OF WOMEN AND CHILDREN, AS WELL AS MEN, TESTING FOR HIV ANNUALLY

I cannot overemphasize the importance of everyone in America testing annually, provided they have not yet been diagnosed HIV-positive. This includes women and children as well.

HOW TO GET AN HIV TEST

A while ago I read that, here in California, physicians were required to report social security numbers of AIDS patients to Sacramento, the reason for this being that documentation of the social security numbers would prevent duplicate reporting and consequent false inflation of the AIDS statistics here. Whether this also applies to positive HIV results here in California, I do not know. And no doubt, required documentation on the progress of the pandemic varies state by state.

Intuitively, I feel that the thought of being reported to Sacramento may cause people to avoid testing. They may feel, possibly because of the earlier social stigma of AIDS, that something just awful might happen to them if Sacramento finds out. Maybe their friends and neighbors will find out. Maybe they will lose their jobs because of it. Maybe they will not be welcome at church anymore. Maybe their children will be expelled from school because of it.

These kinds of fears may needlessly prevent Americans from testing for HIV, here in California, even though Medicaid and Medicare provide for annual HIV and AIDS tests: People may delay in testing, through concern that positive results here in California might be reported to Sacramento, and that they might be subject to community disparagement because of test results.

For those concerned about the social stigma of a positive HIV diagnosis, it is good to know that the large drug stores such as Rite-Aid, Walgreens, and CVS carry HIV diagnosis kits on the shelves near their pharmacies.

My understanding is that the saliva test available from the large drug stores is about 90% accurate, provided the test is done a month or more after sexual contact. Ninety percent is not such a good rate of accuracy, but the advantage, for those concerned about the AIDS stigma, is that if you pay cash for the kit at a pharmacy where no one knows you, then no one will know you took the test, and no one will know your diagnosis. And also, you will know the test results immediately.

There is another test available at some of the large pharmacies … a blood test for HIV. My understanding is that this type of test is about 98% accurate, for those who wait a month after sexual contact before testing. That is a pretty good rate of accuracy, but as I understand it, the blood sample must be sent out to a lab, which means that the lab will know the results of your test. Further, it will take time to get the test results back from the lab.

It is also possible, in some cases, to go to a Family Urgent Care clinic and pay cash for an on-the-spot HIV blood test. This would be a good alternative, I feel, for those in communities with Family Urgent Care clinics so equipped, and for whom time and accuracy are of the essence.

Once a person tests HIV positive, then the thing to do, I feel, would be to ask their physician about available antiretroviral treatments (ART). According to what I have read, ART is very helpful in delaying the occasional outbreaks of AIDS sickness that occur amongst those Americans with the virus. I have also read that Medicaid and Medicare insurance will cover medical treatment.

THE DANGER OF YOUNG CHILDREN CONTRACTING HIV

Is the Drug Trade Targeting Young Children?

Intuitively, from the clair plane, I feel that the drug trade is now targeting preschool children, with 8-year-old children as drug peddlers. Young children have insufficient money to purchase drugs, once addicted, may turn to petty theft from cars and homes to pay for continued drug use.

Are Youth Contracting HIV from Drug Peddlers?

Pertinent to the global HIV pandemic, and again, intuitively speaking, it seems to me that adult drug peddlers sometimes may offer drugs to young children in exchange for sex. Adult drug peddlers are higher risk for HIV and AIDS; thus the danger exists of young children getting HIV because of drug addiction.

Likelihood of ‘Blooms’ of HIV amongst Youth in Communities Nationwide

Because of permissive sexual practices among young people today, it seems to me likely that, once one sexually active child in a school contracts HIV, the likelihood will be that most of the children will have HIV with six months or a year.

Increase in After-School Petty Crime May Forewarn of Youth HIV ‘Blooms’

Again in clair vision, I feel this is creating ‘hot spots’ of youth pandemic nationwide. My feeling is, youth testing, again because of the AIDS stigma, is woefully lacking in most locales; I may be wrong about this, though. If my intuition turns out to be true, then a way to predict HIV blooms amongst youth in America would be to tabulate after-school petty theft from automobiles and homes … These might indicate that drugs are being sold to school children.

LIFE EXPECTANCY FOR CHILDREN WHO HAVE HIV

As you may know, to date there is insufficient research on antiretroviral treatment (ART) for youth; the difficulty being that the drugs used for adults may prove damaging to the bodies of growing children. Thus, infection with HIV is more dangerous for young children, than for adults, and has a much greater impact on their life expectancy.

The data on life expectancy for children in their teens who contract HIV are better than for newborns and toddlers who contract HIV. My feeling is, this may be because teens have less length of time to wait before antiretroviral treatment can begin, than do very young children.

There is, as I understand it, a high likelihood that people with HIV will have newborns who are diagnosed HIV positive. Most newborns so diagnosed, as nearly as I can tell, are not surviving to puberty. Thus a young local population that has a ‘bloom’ of HIV infection is unlikely to have viable offspring.

HOMELESS AND OUT-OF-WORK CITIZENS AS A MANPOWER RESOURCE FOR TOWNS HARD HIT BY THE GLOBAL PANDEMIC

The life expectancy of people who contract HIV in adulthood is much greater than that for those who contract HIV in youth, because of the availability of antiretroviral treatment for adults, and the relative lack of availability of ART for youth.

Thus the likely scenario of blooms of HIV incidence amongst youth in communities here and there, across America, to do with the drug trade, and resulting in inability of youth to have viable offspring. Towns with such HIV blooms amongst youth will, in the coming decade, most likely experience a projected demographic of stagnant or declining workforce.

In situations where American towns experience such a demographic because of the pandemic’s effect on their youth, the nation’s homeless and out-of-work population may be seen to be a resource for manpower in the decades to come. These homeless and out-of-work citizens may take the place, in the work force of towns hard hit by the pandemic, of the children of today’s children that cannot be anticipated to survive.

Even those of the homeless and out-of-work sector who test positive for HIV may provide many years of manpower to their communities, provided they have access to current antiretroviral treatments (ART).

THE IMPORTANCE OF NURTURING HIV POSITIVE NEWBORNS

In every plague past of humankind, there has emerged a population of plague-resistant remaining human beings. I have no doubt but what that will be the case with the worldwide HIV pandemic.

The issue is, to preserve the health of as many newborns as possible, even if they are HIV positive, as some of these newborns may survive, and may have HIV-resistant genes that allow their immune systems to be healthy, despite the infection. I see from this article that about 1 percent of Caucasians may be HIV-resistant …

Link: “Anyone Immune to HIV? A genetic mutation that blocks HIV may hold the key to future treatment and, perhaps, a cure,” by Elaine Mendus and Trudy Ring, 23 March 2016 … https://www.hivplusmag.com/research-breakthroughs/2016/3/23/anyone-immune-hiv ..

I feel certain that other races and cultures will be found to have individuals with HIV-resistant genes as well.

Thus my own estimate for an HIV-resistant group of people worldwide, who are able to produce viable offspring, is in the more hopeful range of 10 to 20 percent of the current world population

300-YEAR PROJECTION WITH REGARD TO MINIMUM VIABLE HUMAN POPULATION

The world population is now 7.53 billion. Were this population to be reduced to 1 percent over the next 300 years, the world population will have declined to 75.3 million. From my reading, this is well above the minimum viable population for humankind …

Link: “Minimum viable population,” in Wikipedia … https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minimum_viable_population ..

If my more hopeful estimate of 10 to 20 percent HIV-resistant people worldwide were to prove true, then the prospects for continuance of humankind on Earth would be all the better.

Thus my intuitive projection, going forward, is that there will be a decline in population over the next few centuries, and a strengthening of the human gene pool. There is, I feel, an excellent likelihood that humankind will retain a firm footing amongst Earth species, and with a lesser ongoing negative impact on the ecosphere.

THE OUTLOOK FOR HUMANKIND

This is a pandemic like any other. Infection is not a mark of disparagement or a social put-down; no more so than was the case with other pandemics in human history. The more compassionate understanding and loving kindness each community can bring to bear in regard to this very difficult situation, the better it will be for everyone.

As the pandemic continues on a global scale, our best hopes for humankind lie, in the short term, in increased awareness of the prevalence of the pandemic, in lowering of AIDS stigma consciousness, and in voluntary annual testing by men, women, and children of all ages, with medical treatment for those who test positive.

In the mid term, there is hope for healthwise changes in sexual practices, and for new medical regimes. And in the long term, our hope as humankind lies in the presence in our gene pool of HIV-resistant populations.

I ask God’s blessing for each of us, in these difficult times. May we all be blessed with good health, abundance, and happiness in the coming years.

In love, light and joy,
I Am of the Stars

Link: “2016 HIV Lifetime Risk Statistics from Centers for Disease Control,” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 30 March 2019 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-c3f ..

Link: “Compendium: HIV Pandemic,” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 2 March 2019 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-bPl ..

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Community Health, HIV, AIDS, homeless, MSM, M2M, homosexuality, heterosexuality, bisexuality, children and HIV, newborns and HIV, Truvada, HIV resistance, AIDS resistance, social stigma, homelessness, vagrancy, joblessness, work force, manpower, drug war, transgender, HIV tests, California AIDS reportability, minimum viable population, one-upmanship,