Tag Archives: HIV

What Is the Cause of the Current COVID-19 Map Configuration in the United States? by Alice B. Clagett

Published on 25 March 2020

  • COVID-19 INFECTION MAP FOR THE UNITED STATES AS OF 25 MARCH 2020
  • USE OF ALCOHOL AND OF PRESCRIPTION AND NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS MAY WEAKEN THE IMMUNE SYSTEM, INCREASING THE SEVERITY OF COVID-19 SYMPTOMS
    • Importance of Strengthening the Immune System
  • INFECTION WITH HIV / AIDS MAY WEAKEN THE IMMUNE SYSTEM, INCREASING THE SEVERITY OF COVID-19 SYMPTOMS
    • Los Angeles COVID-19 Peak Predicted for 9-12 Days From Now
  • POSSIBLE FACTORS: HIGHRISE BUILDINGS, CANADIAN CITIES NEAR NORTHERN UNITED STATES BORDER, AND MERCHANT MARINE
    • Thoughts on Highrises and the COVID-19 Infection in New York State
    • Thoughts on Possible Involvement of Canadian Cities Such as Toronto and Vancouver
    • Thoughts on Possible Involvement of the Merchant Marine in Infection of United States International Ports

Dear Ones,

I did some research today on the cause of the configuration of the current COVID-19 infection map in the United States …

COVID-19 INFECTION MAP FOR THE UNITED STATES AS OF 25 MARCH 2020

Link: “Where COVID-19 Has Been Confirmed in the U.S. | Statista,” as of 25 March 2020, Sources: Johns Hopkins University, Centers for Disease Control (CDC) … https://www.statista.com/chart/20978/coronavirus-cases-us-map/ … Creative Commons

Link: “Where COVID-19 Has Been Confirmed in the U.S. | Statista,” as of 25 March 2020, Sources: Johns Hopkins University, Centers for Disease Control (CDC) … https://www.statista.com/chart/20978/coronavirus-cases-us-map/ … Creative Commons

As can be seen from the above map, some of the most affected states are New York, New Jersey, California, Washington State, Michigan, Illinois, Florida, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Georgia. Colorado, and Texas.

Least affected as of 25 March 2020 were the uppermost two tiers of states that were not near the Pacific Ocean or the Great Lakes.

USE OF ALCOHOL AND OF PRESCRIPTION AND NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS MAY WEAKEN THE IMMUNE SYSTEM, INCREASING THE SEVERITY OF COVID-19 SYMPTOMS

I see by my research today that the use of alcohol, opioids including heroin, cocaine, and prescription morphine can weaken the immune system, increasing the severity of the effect of COVID-19 infection.

From the map, I see that most of the United States is involved in drug use, the least affected states being North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Iowa, and Texas.

Image: “Drug Overdose Deaths per 100,000 Population by State, US 2016,” by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, in Wikimedia Commons … https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=64480913 … public domain … DESCRIPTION: Dark red represents the highest drug overdose death rate.

Image: “Drug Overdose Deaths per 100,000 Population by State, US 2016,” by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, in Wikimedia Commons … https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=64480913 … public domain …

DESCRIPTION: Dark red represents the highest drug overdose death rate.

Importance of Strengthening the Immune System

I have read that the COVID-19 statistics from China show 81 percent of those who are infected are asymptomatic …

LInk: “Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), by Kenneth McIntosh, MD; Martin S. Hirsch, MD; Allyson Bloom, MD, updated 25 March 2020 … https://www.uptodate.com/contents/coronavirus-disease-2019-covid-19?source=history_widget ..

I feel that lack of symptoms must have to do with the strength of the immune system; so whatever we can do to make our immune systems stronger, as the wave or waves of COVID-19 sweep through our particular state, would be very helpful.

For instance, I find that drinking water with buffered vitamin C mixed into it every other day is very helpful in bolstering my immune system when I feel a cold coming on; this might be helpful for COVID-19 as well.

I also saw somewhere online that consumption of vitamin D might be helpful; and just in the general course of preventive health care, taking a daily vitamin is recommended by many Western medical doctors.

In the case of people whose lifestyle includes the use of recreational drugs, the good news is that withdrawing from use of these drugs prior to the onset of symptoms might improve the chances of having only a mild response to COVID-19 infection.

INFECTION WITH HIV / AIDS MAY WEAKEN THE IMMUNE SYSTEM, INCREASING THE SEVERITY OF COVID-19 SYMPTOMS

As well, I have read that autoimmune diseases such as HIV / AIDS can weaken the immune system, increasing the severity of the effect of COVID-19 infection.

You can see the low arc of the infection swinging round the southern edges of the United States, and also that New York State involved in the epidemic.

Image: “Rates of HIV Diagnosis in the United States, 2017,” by United States Centers for Disease Control, 1 February 2019, in Wikimedia Commons … https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hiv-us-map-2017.png … public domain … DESCRIPTION: Dark blue represents the highest HIV rate.

Image: “Rates of HIV Diagnosis in the United States, 2017,” by United States Centers for Disease Control, 1 February 2019, in Wikimedia Commons … https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hiv-us-map-2017.png … public domain …

DESCRIPTION: Dark blue represents the highest HIV rate.

There is no cure for HIV infection, but symptoms of AIDS can be treated. The present moment may not be the right time for that though. If you are infected with HIV, then you might want to ask your doctor about whether you ought to wait on treatment until the COVID-19 infection builds up and then subsides in your state (much as I hope will be the case for New York State soon).

Los Angeles COVID-19 Peak Predicted for 9-12 Days From Now

Along those lines, I read that Los Angeles Mayor Garcetti predicts that Angelenos may see a great surge in COVID-19 infections (concomitant to the surge currently being experienced in New York)  six to 12 days from now …

Link: “As deaths rise in L.A. County, officials issue new quarantine order,” by Sarah Parvini, Rong-Gong Lin II, Taryn Luna, and Colleen Shalby, 25 March 2020, in the Los Angeles Times … https://www.latimes.com/california/story/2020-03-25/coronavirus-california-peak-deaths ..

POSSIBLE FACTORS: HIGHRISE BUILDINGS, CANADIAN CITIES NEAR NORTHERN UNITED STATES BORDER, AND MERCHANT MARINE

On studying the drug death and the HIV / AIDS infection maps above, I found these to a reasonable degree correspond to the lower arc of the above U.S. map of COVID-19 infection.

Thoughts on Highrises and the COVID-19 Infection in New York State

I had a few thoughts about how New York has taken the fore in terms of COVID-19 infections. I wonder if it might have to do with many people living in highrise buildings that share common HVAC … so that infected air might be circulating throughout a building?

As you may know, I mentioned the HVAC in highrises as a possible source of COVID-19 infection in an earlier blog … Link: “COVID-19 and Central HVAC,” by Alice B. Clagett, written and published on 17 March 2020 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-gZ4 ..

Thoughts on Possible Involvement of Canadian Cities Such as Toronto and Vancouver

As far as infection of Washington State and of the Great Lakes states is concerned, I wondered if trade with the Canadian cities of Vancouver and Toronto might have been a factor in their infection with COVID-19. I see no substantiation of this from the Canadian government, but it is possible there is not as much testing for COVID-19 there, or that statistics are not yet tabulated in that regard.

Thoughts on Possible Involvement of the Merchant Marine in Infection of United States International Ports

The involvement of the Great Lakes states in early COVID-19 infection surprised me; it made me wonder whether the merchant marine might be bringing COVID-19 from foreign ports into United States ports. The effect of the merchant marine might have had to do with the early COVID-19 infection of Washington State, California, and New York State as well.

. . . . .

Those are my thoughts for now on the COVID-19 pandemic.

Blessings of perfect health and happiness to everyone! Stay well!

In love, light and joy,
I Am of the Stars

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COVID-19, coronavirus, community health, health, United States, HIV, AIDS, drug use, alcohol, heroin, cocaine, morphine, New York, New Jersey, California, Washington State, Michigan, Illinois, Florida, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Georgia. Colorado, Texas, Canada, Toronto, Vancouver, merchant marine, coronavirus in Canada, vitamin C, vitamin D, multivitamins, highrises, HVAC,

Notes on Forestalling Social Unrest in California . by Alice B. Clagett *

Written on 12 April 2018; published on 6 December 2019

  • THOUGHTS ON PROVIDING STAGE ONE WORK FOR THE CALIFORNIA HOMELESS AT LESS THAN MINIMUM WAGE, IN EXCHANGE FOR SOCIAL SERVICES
    • Prison Work Programs for Less Than a Dollar an Hour
      • Prison Release Work Camps.
    • A Stage One Consideration in Employing California’s Homeless at Less Than the Minimum Wage
  • THOUGHTS ON SLOWING THE SPREAD OF HIV AND AIDS IN PRISONS
    • On Isolating HIV-Positive Prison Populations in Cell Blocks, Together with HIV-Positive Prison Guards
    • Conjugal Visits
  • HUMAN TRAFFICKING OF IMMIGRANTS TO THE UNITED STATES, COMPARED TO THAT IN CHINA
    • How China Deals with an Influx of Minimally Employable People from North Korea
    • How the United States Deals with an Influx of Minimally Employable People from Mexico
  • CONCLUSION

Dear Ones,

I wrote up these notes in April 2018, with a hope that I would soon finish them off. More than a year later, I have to figure I may never get round to that. I apologize to my reader that they are presented here in outline state …

THOUGHTS ON PROVIDING STAGE ONE WORK FOR THE CALIFORNIA HOMELESS AT LESS THAN MINIMUM WAGE, IN EXCHANGE FOR SOCIAL SERVICES

I have a thought that Stage One work might be provided the California homeless at less than minimum wage, in exchange for social services such as State One housing, necessary medical treatment, food, and temporary housing.

I note we have precedents in paying less than the minimum wage, here in America: Commission sales work, work on small farms, and newspaper delivery, for instance …

Link: “When Must Employers Pay the Minimum Wage?, updated by Sachi Barreiro, Attorney, at NOLO … https://www.nolo.com/legal-encyclopedia/employers-pay-minimum-wage-law-29600.html ..

Prison Work Programs for Less Than a Dollar an Hour

Link: “How Much Do Incarcerated People Earn in Each State?” by Wendy Sawyer, 10 April 2017, in Prison Policy Initiative … https://www.prisonpolicy.org/blog/2017/04/10/wages/ ..

Thus we have a precedent, in the exceptional circumstance of incarceration, for offering work at a great deal less than the minimum wage. Could we build upon this precedent by offering work training to our felons or released felons or homeless, at far less than minimum wage?

If the precedent might be stretched in this way, then we might have the setting for an economic bounce-back, here in California, as greater numbers of the currently unemployed are able to find employment.

Prison Release Work Camps. I am thinking that something like this might be good if, for lack of funds, we have to release the prison population. For those who are ‘unregenerate’ … to use an old-time term … work camps might be set up or ‘rough and tumble’ work might be provided as an alternative to imprisonment, at greatly less than the minimum wage. This topic I discussed in a little more detail here …

Link: “Ought the United States, like North Korea, Have Forced Labor?” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 21 May 2019 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-cQw ..

A Stage One Consideration in Employing California’s Homeless at Less Than the Minimum Wage

Here is a Stage One consideration: Let’s try to figure out some way to get around the minimum wage, for people who are unhomed, and who are receiving extra social services, in the event the United States government is not able to participate, here in California, in ameliorating the situation, and easing the social unrest.

For instance, could we offer something more akin to prison labor … voluntary labor, and a very small wage, in exchange for housing and food and medical care? Could we offer that, in camps especially set up for that?

What would be the long-term situation with regard to those that California cannot now find work for at minimum wage, and who must find work? If employment at less than minimum wage in exchange for social services were to be offered as a temporary, short-term Phase One, then what would be Phases Two and Three?

THOUGHTS ON SLOWING THE SPREAD OF HIV AND AIDS IN PRISONS

On Isolating HIV-Positive Prison Populations in Cell Blocks, Together with HIV-Positive Prison Guards

In United States prisons, HIV tests might be used to separate the HIV-positive prison populations … and the HIV-positive prison guards … physically, from those prisoners and guards who are HIV-negative. These tests need to be performed every 6 months, as I understand it, and also one month after possible exposure to the virus. HIV tests might be made routine in prison medical facilities, not only for the safety of prisoners and guards, but also for the sake of the infectible law-abiding populations upon whom prisoners might prey, either as prostitutes or as sexual predators, after their release.

Conjugal Visits

I think that, to prevent the spread of HIV and AIDS amongst United States prison populations, we ought to consider allowing conjugal or significant other visits in our federal prisons, and in those state prisons that currently do not do so.

Conjugal visits might lead to less intercourse amongst inmates, and less intercourse between inmates and prison guards, so that HIV might spread more slowly amongst the prison population. I feel that conjugal visits might also lead to less violence amongst prisoners.

Such a policy also might help prisoners who have been in long-time-paired relationships to preserve those relationships while imprisoned. It might help families stay together through the financial hardship of imprisonment of a parent, and that might positively affect community life.

HUMAN TRAFFICKING OF IMMIGRANTS TO THE UNITED STATES, COMPARED TO THAT IN CHINA

I have been perusing the “CIA World Factbook” online …

Link: “World Factbook,” by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) … https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/ ..

… and have found it full of information pertinent to forestalling social unrest in California. For instance, from my reading, it seems to me that the human trafficking of immigrants to China from North Korea in our lifetime is, in some ways, analogous to the human trafficking of immigrants to the United States from Mexico.

How China Deals with an Influx of Minimally Employable People from North Korea

Apparently, there are masses of people in North Korea, whom the government forces into forced labor in China …

“… North Korea does not fully comply with minimum standards for the elimination of [human] trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; the government continued to participate in human trafficking through its use of domestic forced labor camps and the provision of forced labor to foreign governments through bilateral contracts; officials did not demonstrate any efforts to address human trafficking through prosecution, protection, or prevention measures; no known investigations, prosecutions, or convictions of trafficking offenders or officials complicit in trafficking-related offenses were conducted; the government also made no efforts to identify or protect trafficking victims and did not permit NGOs to assist victims (2015) …” –from Link: “CIA World Factbook, North Korea,” in the section: Transnational Issues … Subheading: Trafficking in personshttps://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/geos/kn.html … public domain

Korean people also may flee to China of their own free will so as to escape starvation …

“… risking arrest, imprisonment, and deportation, tens of thousands of North Koreans cross into China to escape famine, economic privation, and political oppression … –from Link: “CIA World Factbook, North Korea,” in the section: Transnational Issues … subheading: Disputes – International https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/geos/kn.html … public domain

Those types of labor available to trafficked peoples sometimes may be beneath the level of misery that is acceptable here in the United States …

Link: “Trafficking in Persons Report June 2017,” by United States of America Department of State … https://www.hsdl.org/?view&did=801874This is a pdf download.

It might be prostitution. It might be illegal activities such as theft. It might be begging. They might be held by gangs that are ‘beneath the law’ and forced to be members of those gangs. This, to me, is unacceptable.

How the United States Deals with an Influx of Minimally Employable People from Mexico

The situation with immigrants from North Korean to China is analogous, in some regards, to the situation with immigrants from Mexico to the United States. Immigrants from Mexico are not forced by the United States government into inhumane kinds of labor, but they may find themselves in those kinds of situations … living In dug-out caves in the Earth, for instance. And doing seasonal, migrant labor. Or young women or children may find themselves forced into lives of prostitution by pimps.

One thing we might look at, going forward, is how job training might be offered new immigrants, here in the United States, so as to broaden the scope of job opportunities for which they are eligible. This type of job training is doubly beneficial: It helps raise the living standard of immigrants; and it helps lessen the spiritual burden of human trafficking in the United States and uplift our nation through good works in our community.

The philanthropy we offer those caught in the throes of human trafficking is a kindness we offer our children as well, for they will look forward to a better educated community through whose informed choices may be sculpted a brighter tomorrow for all America.

CONCLUSION

In conclusion, I feel that Los Angeles in particular, due to such stressors as homelessness and released felons, faces the spectre of social unrest at present. What to do? I feel we must look at what other countries do when faced with these stressors. We must not turn away from innovative solutions simply because we feel they are beneath us, as Americans.

I feel it is because we feel this: that the lesser good we are able to provide the homeless and released felons is beneath us, and unworthy of them, that we have found ourselves for ten years to be in stalemate as a city.

We are unable to provide the level of benefits and care that has been, with hopeful optimism, voted into California law. Massive problems lie before us, and have done so for 10 years now. California is a Sanctuary State for those fleeing from downright extermination in the crueler states of our great Union.

Though we are that to many, we have not the funds to help those seeking sanctuary in the manner afforded the homeless, the helpless, those seeking shelter, food, and work in days of old.

Here in Los Angeles we must make bold to provide what we may to those who have nothing at all. Though it be against the laws of our nation, and against those of our State, we must do what we can. We must offer what we may. We must open our hearts, still our doubts, and come up with sensible, novel solutions to the new problems that lie before us.

In love, light and joy,
I Am of the Stars

Video: “Everyone In–Supportive Housing Across L.A.,” by Everyone In LA, 8 March 2018 …  https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=22&v=QnZWabk8mO0 ..

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California economy, social unrest, law enforcement, human rights, forced labor, homeless, jobless, homelessness, joblessness, felons, prisons, rehabilitation, HIV, AIDS, prostitution, illegal occupations, work camps, drinking water, housing, favelas, alternative housing, Mexican-United States relations, immigrant workers, illegal immigrants, addiction, SSI, economics, social issues, human trafficking, Chinese forced labor, North Korean forced labor, prison labor, community service, home detention, work release,  work furlough, HIV pandemic, AIDS, my favorites, restorative justice, imprisonment, United States, Mexico, North Korea, China, safety, countries of Earth, Los Angeles, California,

Call to Action: Annual HIV or AIDS Tests for Women. by Alice B. Clagett

Written and published on 6 December 2019

Dear Ones,

Recently I looked over a very good study which states that lifetime risk of HIV infection in the United States is 1 in 68 for men and 1 in 253 for women …

Link: “Lifetime Risk of a Diagnosis of HIV Infection in the United States,” by Kristen L. Hess, PhD, MPH, Xiaohong Hu, MS, Amy Lansky, PhD, MPH, Jonathan Mermin, MD, and H. Irene Hall, PhD, MPH, HHS Public Access Author Manuscript, Ann. Epidemiol. published in final edited form as: Ann Epidemiol. 2017 April ; 27(4): 238-243, doi:10.1016/j.annepidem.2017.02.003 … https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/46891/cdc_46891_DS1.pdf?This is a pdf file.

What am I missing here? Is it not true that most men in the United States date women? Do one in three United States men never date women, but only distribute HIV infection amongst their subgroup?

It seems to me more likely that the lifetime risk of HIV infection amongst United States women is about the same as that for men, but that because the medical profession guidelines for subgroups at risk are faulty, women are not being tested for HIV infection concomitantly with their level of risk.

My suggestion is this: That the medical profession suggest to each patient … whether man, woman or child … that they be tested for HIV (or for AIDS, if they are already HIV-positive), as part of the annual wellness checkup.

n love, light and joy,
I Am of the Stars

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Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

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calls to action, Western medicine, health, Community Health, HIV, AIDS,

 

Community Health: The Misleading Nature of CDC Reports on the HIV – AIDS Crisis in America . by Alice B. Clagett *

Published on 4 November 2019

  • MISLEADING NATURE OF CDC HIV DATA
  • ‘INCIDENCE’ of HIV – AIDS
  • ‘PREVALENCE’ or ‘LIFETIME RISK’ of HIV – AIDS
    • How Family Wealth Planning for Future Generations Is Affected by HIV Prevalence
    • How May We Instill Hope in Our Families, Even Though They May Have HIV?
      • Careers Despite HIV
      • Continuing to Work Despite Blindness
  • RECENT CDC FIGURES ON HIV LIFETIME RISK
    • Table 1. Lifetime Risk of HIV Diagnosis, by Sex, Race/Ethnicity, and Risk Group, United States
      • Gender Inequality in Testing for HIV – AIDS
      • Lifetime Risk for Black Men Who Have Sex with Men
    • Table 2. Lifetime Risk of HIV Diagnosis, by State, United States
      • Great Disparity in Lifetime Risk, State by State
      • Possible Underreporting of Risk by States for Economic Reasons
      • Risk in Large Cities
    • Table 3. 10-Year Age-Conditional Risk (1 in n) of HIV Diagnosis Among HIV-Free Males and Females, Aged 20-50 Years, United States
      • Young Men Who Have Sex with Men Are at Greater Risk of New HIV Diagnosis
      • New HIV Diagnosis Risk for Young Men Who Have Sex with Men Varies Greatly by Race / Ethnicity
      • New HIV Diagnosis Risk for People Who Inject Drugs is Much Less Than for Men Who Have Sex with Men
      • New HIV Diagnosis Risk for Young Women Who Inject Drugs Is Twice as Great as for Young Men
      • Can We Extrapolate That HIV Diagnosis Risk for Young Women is Twice as Great as That for Young Men?
      • Importance of Gender Equality in HIV – AIDS Testing of Young People

Dear Ones,

MISLEADING NATURE OF CDC HIV DATA

Over the years I have written quite a few blogs on the HIV – AIDS global pandemic. Chicken that I am, I feel I have failed to convey my feeling that the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) is releasing data about the pandemic that greatly misrepresent the difficulties that lie before us as a nation. Perhaps this misrepresentation is intentional; perhaps it is political in nature … and perhaps not. Who can say?

The crux of the matter is that the data the CDC typically presents to the public have to do with disease ‘incidence’ rather than disease ‘prevalence’ or ‘lifetime risk’.

‘INCIDENCE’ of HIV – AIDS

As I understand it, disease ‘incidence’ has to do with how many new cases will be diagnosed next year, or the following year. These data are important to medical doctors, so that they can have sufficient medications on hand for the coming year.

‘PREVALENCE’ or ‘LIFETIME RISK’ of HIV – AIDS

‘Prevalence’, or ‘lifetime risk’ offers data on the likelihood that we and our families will contract HIV – AIDS during our lifetime. These are the data that I feel are hard to find in the CDC documents. Yet these are the data that help us plan for our families’ future.

How Family Wealth Planning for Future Generations Is Affected by HIV Prevalence

For instance, if our children, according to ‘lifetime risk’ data, are likely to contract HIV – AIDS in their lifetime, then we might ask: At what age are they likely to contract the disease?

If they contract it in early childhood, from what I have read, it is apparently likely they will die from it at a young age.

If they contract the disease at about the age of puberty, from what I have read, it is likely they will be unable to bear offspring that live more than a few years.

If our children contract the disease while their children are young, then apparently the risk is high that their young children will contract the disease from their parents through suckling milk, or transmission of bodily fluids while the family has bouts of cold or flu, or through childhood play.

Whether or not our children will contract the disease before they bear children is, I feel, very important to each family’s planning for the future. If there are no grandchildren, then that will make a big difference in the wealth that must be set aside for future generations. In addition, health care costs and the economic impact of sick leave downtime for our infected children and grandchildren is a wealth planning consideration.

How May We Instill Hope in Our Families, Even Though They May Have HIV?

If the lifetime risk of contracting HIV – AIDS is high, either because of lifestyle choices, or because of race or ethnicity, or because of the city or state or region of the United States in which we live, then now would be the time to plan with our children and grandchildren for a future that may involve infection.

Our families need to have some hope to live for, even though they may be infected.

I will say that, in my opinion, the CDC does a great job of glossing over the downside, and providing the upside of life with HIV – AIDS. So families can go to their site to learn that life with HIV is no big deal in the United States, any more.

By that is meant, I feel, that for those who are able to tolerate the drug regimens that have been developed, the prospect of a long and productive life is good. And that is something that might offer hope to our children: They may find that they, or their friends, contract the disease.

Careers Despite HIV. Maybe they may not be able to have families of their own, but they can look forward to fulfilling careers, and maybe good health for quite a long time.

Continuing to Work Despite Blindness. I note that, as of 2001 10-20% of people worldwide who had AIDS were becoming blind in one or both eyes …

Link: “HIV / AIDS and Blindness,” by P. G. Kestelyn and E. T. Cunningham, Jr, Bull World Health Organ 2001, 79(3), 208-213 … https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2566369/ ..

Thus, as a nation, we must retool as many industries as possible so that our eyesight-impaired HIV-positive children can continue on with their careers even should they have low vision.
RECENT CDC FIGURES ON HIV LIFETIME RISK

Today I found a pretty good pdf file offered by the CDC, that presents lifetime risk and also age-conditional risk by race and ethnicity, gender, and state. The data are from 2009-2013 …

Link: “Lifetime Risk of a Diagnosis of HIV Infection in the United States,” by Kristen L. Hess, PhD, MPH, Xiaohong Hu, MS, Amy Lansky, PhD, MPH, Jonathan Mermin, MD, and H. Irene Hall, PhD, MPH, HHS Public Access Author Manuscript, Ann. Epidemiol. published in final edited form as: Ann Epidemiol. 2017 April ; 27(4): 238-243, doi:10.1016/j.annepidem.2017.02.003 … https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/46891/cdc_46891_DS1.pdf? ..

By clicking on the above pdf link you can download the document to your computer.

Of special note are the three tables at the end of the document.

Table 1. Lifetime Risk of HIV Diagnosis, by Sex, Race/Ethnicity, and Risk Group, United States

Gender Inequality in Testing for HIV – AIDS. I note the total lifetime risk for men is 1 in 68 people, and for women 1 in 253 people. I believe this has to do with gender inequality in testing for HIV – AIDS. I feel the perception in the medical community is that MSM men are at risk for HIV – AIDS, and so, I feel, doctors are more likely to test men than women.

As I have mentioned priorly, it could be that bisexual men who are dating or married to women and raising families are also at risk, and that their wives and families are at risk and fail to test for HIV – AIDS because they are uninformed about their boyfriends’ or husbands’ exposure to risk.

I would like to see equal gender testing for HIV – AIDS, especially among couples with children where the boyfriend or husband tests positive for HIV. Then the medical community might, a few years from now, reassess the total lifetime risk for women.

Lifetime Risk for Black Men Who Have Sex with Men. I note the lifetime risk of contracting HIV – AIDS is 1 in 2 men. The overall lifetime risk for men who have sex with men is 1 in 6 men. From this I feel that women who want to have families ought to ascertain, before becoming pregnant, whether the prospective fathers in fact prefer to have sex with men. I feel that societal expectations, especially amongst Christians, make it especially difficult for Christian men to disclose this bias to prospective wives.

Given this, I feel all women hoping to have children ask those men they want to be intimate with for HIV test results, keeping in mind that chastity for one month after the last sexual contact is necessary before tests such as Oraquick can provide relatively accurate results. The last I read in the fine print of the Oraquick package was that there was a 10 percent error in this type of saliva test.  HIV blood tests, while more expensive, are a good deal more accurate; they are the best the medical community can offer presently.

Table 2. Lifetime Risk of HIV Diagnosis, by State, United States

From this table, I note a big range of risks, state by state, and in the District of Columbia.

Great Disparity in Lifetime Risk, State by State. For instance, the lifetime risk in Maryland is 1 in 56 people. But the risk in Montana is 1 in 674 people. The other states are in between these two extremes, with Georgia and Florida on the very risky side, and Idaho and North Dakota on the ‘unrisky’ side.

The first thought along these lines, for families who are concerned about HIV infection, might be (and I agree it seems logical) to relocate to a state that has less lifetime risk of infection.

Possible Underreporting of Risk by States for Economic Reasons. Amongst the states, I feel it likely that there may be HIV – AIDS ‘underreporting’, and that this may have to do with the tourist trade, or perceived need to attract new business to one’s home state. If this is true, I hope lifetime risk reporting will become more accurate in the next few years, as our states owe it to their residents to offer accurate figures, so that families can take steps for disease prevention and health care.

Risk in Large Cities. I note the lifetime risk of HIV – AIDS is 1 in 17 people in the District of Columbia, which is the heart of one of our large metropolitan areas. In past blogs, I have asked for a breakdown of lifetime risk for our large cities, as the very high risk in the District of Columbia may in fact indicate high risk in other large United States cities as well.

Table 3. 10-Year Age-Conditional Risk (1 in n) of HIV Diagnosis Among HIV-Free Males and Females, Aged 20-50 Years, United States

Young Men Who Have Sex with Men Are at Greater Risk of New HIV Diagnosis. From these data I see that overall, it is four times more likely that men who have sex with men, and who are 20 years of age will get a new diagnosis of HIV than will men who have sex with men, and who are 50 years of age.

New HIV Diagnosis Risk for Young Men Who Have Sex with Men Varies Greatly by Race / Ethnicity. For black men who have sex with men, the risk of new diagnosis of HIV is 1 in 4 at age 20 and 1 in 26 at age 50. For Hispanic men who have sex with men, the figures are 1 in 13 at age 20, and 1 in 40 at age 50. For White men who have sex with men, the figures are 1 in 39 at age 20 and 1 in 79 at age 50.

New HIV Diagnosis Risk for People Who Inject Drugs is Much Less Than for Men Who Have Sex with Men. Also, I see that people who inject drugs and are 20 years of age are somewhat less likely to get a new diagnosis of HIV than people who are 50 years of age; and that the overall new diagnosis risk for people who inject drugs is, across the age spectrum, very much less than for men who have sex with men.

New HIV Diagnosis Risk for Young Women Who Inject Drugs Is Twice as Great as for Young Men. Overall, for men who inject drugs the new diagnosis risk is 1 in 220 at age 20, and 1 in 167 at age 50. For women who inject drugs the new diagnosis risk is 1 in 108 at age 20 and 1 in 112 at age 50. That would mean that amongst people who inject drugs, women 20 years of age are about twice as likely to get a new HIV diagnosis as are men that age.

Can We Extrapolate That HIV Diagnosis Risk for Young Women is Twice as Great as That for Young Men? As both men and women who inject drugs know they are at risk, it seems to me fair to assume they are testing for HIV in a gender equal way. Thus the figures for new diagnosis risk for men and women who inject drugs might help provide an answer regarding the true new diagnosis risk for women who fail to test because they do not know their boyfriends or husbands are having sex with men.

We might go with the assumption that women who are dating or married to men who have sex with men have twice as much risk of new HIV diagnosis as the men. Amongst 20-year-old men having sex with men the new diagnosis risk is 1 in 15. Projecting from the drug injection risk, 20-year-old women who have sex with men who also have sex with men might be expected to have a new diagnosis risk of 1 in 8 (twice as risky as for the men).

I arrive at this estimate by creating a similar ratio, like this …

  • New diagnosis risk at 20 for men versus women who inject drugs = 1/220 for men versus 1 in 109 for women (about twice as risky for women)
  • Extrapolating new diagnosis risk at 20 for men versus women in relationships where the man has sex with men = 1 in 15 for men versus 1 in 8 (about twice as risky) for women

Importance of Gender Equality in HIV – AIDS Testing of Young People. The above estimate highlights how important gender equality in HIV – AIDS testing may be right now, as regards testing for young women.

From the above estimate we might also extrapolate the number of men who are not disclosing their bisexual lifestyle. If in fact it proves true that twice as many young women as young men, overall, are getting new HIV diagnoses, then it seems to me possible that as many as half of American men are engaging in sex with men as well as with their female sexual partners and wives.

What otherwise would account for young women having a higher incidence of new diagnoses than young men? I have read online that many young women have sex with two men by about age 20. If one of these two had HIV, and gave it to the young woman, then her new male partner would be at risk of infection as well. If this were to be so, then the risk for young women might be from young men who also have sex with men. And the risk for young men might be from having sex with either young men who have sex with men, or from having sex with young women who have done so. Do you not feel this to be true?

If so, then the feat that lies before the medical profession would be to find the most effective way of gathering information from young HIV positive men regarding their female sexual partners, and of persuading the men to allow their female sexual partners to test.

Blessings to all,

In love, light and joy,
Alice B. Clagett
I Am of the Stars

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Increased Risk of HIV Infection Among Law Enforcement and Medical Personnel and Their Families? . by Alice B. Clagett

Written on 19 July 2016; published on 20 October 2019

Dear Ones,

Those who abide by the law all their lives tend to think that those who sometimes run sideways of the law ‘live in a world of their own’, a world apart from themselves. And in general, it seems to me that this is true.

On the other hand, when sexual intercourse occurs between imprisoned sex workers and law enforcement, then there may be increased risk of HIV and AIDS among the families of law enforcement personnel … even families who are very upstanding and law-abiding.

There is increased risk of contracting HIV whenever people come in contact with those who have HIV. Since sex workers have increased incidence of HIV, then those who deal with sex workers, whether or not in a sexual context, would be subject to some degree of increased risk. This could easily be seen to apply to doctors, nurses, health workers in drug rehabilitation facilities, and law enforcement personnel.

Apropos of these potentially disconcerting possibilities: I have heard that HIV tests with very high accuracy, similar to that from tests at a doctor’s office, are now available for about $40 from drug store chains, and for less money at Walmart. That is a very good thing, considering the present social stigma of the ‘hives’ (HIV) label.

In love, light and joy,
I Am of the Stars

MORE INFORMATION

The information in this blog originally appeared as a postscript in this blog …

Link: “Ought Law Enforcement Have Sex with Jailed Sex Workers?” by Alice B. Clagett, written and published on 19 July 2016 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-5SW ..

I thought it best to break it out as a separate blog, so that it will be easier to search for and find.

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community health, HIV, hives, AIDS, law enforcement, doctors, sex workers, Western medicine, nurses, drug rehabilitation, AIDS stigma,

Call to Action: AIDS Virus Sound and Sound Healing . by Alice B. Clagett

Filmed on 3 April 2019; published on 5 August 2019

  • VIDEO BY ALICE
  • SUMMARY OF THE VIDEO
    • AIDS Virus, channeled by Alice B. Clagett, Soundtrack and Words
    • Photos by Alice

Dear Ones,

Here is a video on the sound that the HIV virus makes as it swims through the bloodstream, and the idea of testing healing the virus through the languages of sound. There is an edited Summary after the video …

VIDEO BY ALICE

SUMMARY OF THE VIDEO

Hello, Dear Ones, It’s Alice. I Am of the Stars.

I have a request, a Call to Action, for the healing through languages of Light and sound crew … the Lightworkers. Today I was listening to other people, on the astral plane, and I found out what the AIDS virus sounds like. So the question is: How to create a language of sound or language of Light healing modality to help heal this virus.

Here is what it sounds like … It sounds like the sound I am about to make, but the sound itself attracts and carries negative astral chatter with it. It sounds like a kind of a forced, sibilant or hissing whisper, something like this …

AIDS Virus
Channeled by Alice B. Clagett
Soundtrack and Words
3 April 2019

 

hmm hmm hmm  (x3)

Can you hear that? That sound … a little bit like a very low, extremely quiet motor, maybe the sound of the way it swims through the bloodstream, is the sound that attracts the negative astral energy that probably causes the damage.

Again, it sounds a little like this … [Then is heard the second half of the above soundtrack.]

So what we need is a contrasting sound, maybe through music, that will break up the sound of the virus swimming, that will interrupt the flow of the virus. I think that will help very much. I am looking forward to one of you coming up with something of that nature.

Along those lines I have, to offer …

  • It could be that certain pure pitches will do that … a pure pitch of sound, if a person listens to it.
  • It might be that the Fibonacci sequence would do it.
  • It is possible that music such as Bach or Beethoven might do it.
  • And there are the newer forms of music too … the music that is played by the Lightworkers.

Good luck, you all! I hope we find the answer really soon.

You all take care.

In love, light and joy,
I Am of the Stars

Photos by Alice

Image: “Tiger Lily 1,” by Alice B. Clagett, 3 April 2019, CC BY-SA 4.0

Image: “Tiger Lily 1,” by Alice B. Clagett, 3 April 2019, CC BY-SA 4.0

Image: “Tiger Lily 2,” by Alice B. Clagett, 3 April 2019, CC BY-SA 4.0

Image: “Tiger Lily 2,” by Alice B. Clagett, 3 April 2019, CC BY-SA 4.0

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2016 HIV Lifetime Risk Statistics from Centers for Disease Control . by Alice B. Clagett

Published on 30 March 2019

  • LIFETIME RISK OF HIV DIAGNOSIS BY STATE
  • CALL TO ACTION: RESEARCH QUESTIONS REGARDING THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA HIV STATISTIC
  • LIFETIME RISK OF HIV DIAGNOSIS BY TRANSMISSION GROUP
  • LIFETIME RISK OF HIV DIAGNOSIS AMONG MSM BY RACE/ETHNICITY
  • LIFETIME RISK OF HIV DIAGNOSIS BY RACE/ETHNICITY
  • FOUR SCENARIOS OF THE POTENTIAL IMPACT OF EXPANDED HIV TESTING, TREATMENT AND PrEP IN THE UNITED STATES, 2015-2020

Dear Ones,

Today I found out that the lifetime risk of HIV infection published by Truvada, and referred to in an earlier blog of mine, originated with a 2016 Centers for Disease Control study which is public domain. Here is the overall report …

Link: “Supplemental Report: Estimated HIV Incidence and Prevalence in the United States, 2010-2016,” in “HIV Surveillance Report: Supplemental Report,” Vol. 24, No. 1, by Centers for Disease Control (CDC), National Center for HIV / AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, Division of HIV / AIDS Prevention … https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/pdf/library/reports/surveillance/cdc-hiv-surveillance-supplemental-report-vol-24-1.pdf ..

Here are the CDC graphics …

LIFETIME RISK OF HIV DIAGNOSIS BY STATE

Image: “Lifetime Risk of HIV Diagnosis by State,” from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2016 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, published 2016; accessed 8 June 2017 … http://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/newsroom/2016/croi-2016.html … public domain

Image: “Lifetime Risk of HIV Diagnosis by State,” from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2016 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, published 2016; accessed 8 June 2017 … http://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/newsroom/2016/croi-2016.html … public domain

Here is text for the lifetime risk of contracting HIV, by United States state …

STATE RISK
DC 1 in 13
MD 1 in 49
GA 1 in 51
FL 1 in 54
LA 1 in 56
NY 1 in 69
TX 1 in 81
NJ 1 in 84
MS 1 in 85
SC 1 in 86
NC 1 in 93
DE 1 in 96
AL 1 in 97
STATE RISK
NV 1 in 98
IL 1 in 101
CA 1 in 102
TN 1 in 103
PA 1 in 115
VA 1 in 115
MA 1 in 121
AZ 1 in 138
CT 1 in 139
RI 1 in 143
OH 1 in 150
MO 1 in 155
AR 1 in 159
STATE RISK
MI 1 in 167
OK 1 in 168
KY 1 in 173
IN 1 in 183
WA 1 in 185
CO 1 in 191
NM 1 in 196
HI 1 in 202
OR 1 in 214
MN 1 in 216
KS 1 in 262
NE 1 in 264

 

STATE RISK
WV 1 in 302
WI 1 in 307
IA 1 in 342
UT 1 in 366
ME 1 in 373
AK 1 in 384
SD 1 in 402
NH 1 in 411
WY 1 in 481
VT 1 in 527
ID 1 in 547
MT 1 in 578
ND 1 in 670

CALL TO ACTION: RESEARCH QUESTIONS REGARDING THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA HIV STATISTIC

I note in particular the lifetime risk in the District of Columbia is 1 in 13 people. I have a question as to the cause. Here are my thoughts as to lines of inquiry …

  • As the District of Columbia is a high density urban area, could it be that other high density urban areas in the United States are also among the highest risk?
    • To answer this question, a researcher would have to pull out the relevant statistics for cities from those for rural areas, and see if there is a statistically significant difference between urban and rural areas.
    • Alternatively, we could look at increasing population density in each of the above states, and see if it correlates with increasing risk.
    • If the answer to this question turns out to be ‘yes’, then I ask that researchers look into whether the presence of an international airport or an international port of call in a city increases lifetime risk of infection.
  • Could it be that the District of Columbia has experienced the first of regional ‘HIV blooms’, bell curve increases, and that we might expect the same in other areas? If so, when?
    • To answer this question, we would need to see an annual graph on lifetime risk in the District of Columbia, optimally going back 10 years. If it were found, say, that a District of Columbia ‘bloom’ happened in the time interval from 2014-2016, a three-year time span, then that information would be very helpful in planning for education, prevention and treatment of HIV in other areas of the United States, for a three-year interval starting in 2019.
    • As the CDC data are three years old, and if there was a ‘bloom’ in the District of Columbia from 2014-2016, then we might posit that there has been a similar bloom elsewhere in the United States in the three-year interval from 2016-2019. That might provide a basis for extrapolating to the true current situation in the United States, with regard to the pandemic. My thought is that the current situation might be much more intense than is surmised, and that this discrepancy might be due to the staleness of the CDC statistics and the quick rise in prevalence instanced by the steep slope of the epidemic bell curve (about which I have written in past years).
  • Could it be that the District of Columbia high risk has to do with the presence of international visitors? If so, could this mean that AIDS lifetime risk in other countries has been underreported or underestimated?
    • Another way to assess international visitor risk would be to test all military personnel who have been on away missions.

LIFETIME RISK OF HIV DIAGNOSIS BY TRANSMISSION GROUP

Image: “Lifetime Risk of HIV Diagnosis by Transmission Group,” from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2016 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, published 2016; accessed 8 June 2017 … http://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/newsroom/2016/croi-2016.html … public domain

Image: “Lifetime Risk of HIV Diagnosis by Transmission Group,” from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2016 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, published 2016; accessed 8 June 2017 … http://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/newsroom/2016/croi-2016.html … public domain

This image is pretty standard, and I feel pretty misleading. For MSM (men having sex with men) the lifetime risk is 1 in 6. For women who inject drugs, 1 in 23. For men who inject drugs, 1 in 36. For heterosexual women, 1 in 241. and for heterosexual men, 1 in 473.

My concerns regarding this table are several. I wonder, for instance, whether the MSM category ought to be rephrased and reanalyzed in terms of men and women who are recipients of rectal sex, and this statistic compared to that for men who are donors of rectal sex.

Also significant would be the extent to which HIV screening varies for the various groups in the table. My thought on this is that we might find that men and women who inject drugs are more frequently tested for HIV concomitant with drug detox protocols instituted through emergency treatment of drug overdoses.

Then with regard to the big difference in the risk for heterosexual women and heterosexual men, how is it that the risk for heterosexual women is so very much greater than that for heterosexual men? Is it that women are more likely to test for HIV than men?

Could it be that a statistically significant portion of men described as heterosexual are bisexual, and are testing separately, under alias, as MSM, so as to avoid social stigma and preserve the appearance of a straight marriage? For such a segment of undeclared bisexual men married to straight women, they might be dosing their wives with HIV prophylactics without their knowledge, or alternatively, their wives may be infected and untreated, largely, I feel, because the CDC risk factors do not include married, straight women.

The question is, how large might a putative, undeclared bisexual and married male segment of the population be? If that were known, then we might better plan for diagnosis and treatment in the coming decade.

LIFETIME RISK OF HIV DIAGNOSIS BY RACE/ETHNICITY

Image: “Lifetime Risk of HIV Diagnosis by Race/Ethnicity,” from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2016 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, published 2016; accessed 8 June 2017 … http://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/newsroom/2016/croi-2016.html … public domain

Image: “Lifetime Risk of HIV Diagnosis by Race/Ethnicity,” from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2016 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, published 2016; accessed 8 June 2017 … http://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/newsroom/2016/croi-2016.html … public domain

This is a well-known set of statistics. The highest racial-ethnic category with regard to lifetime risk of HIV diagnosis is African American men: 1 in 20. Next are African American women: 1 in 48. Possibly socioeconomic disadvantage may negatively influence prevention and medical care in this group?

Then Hispanic men: 1 in 48 … and Hispanic women, 1 in 227. Guessing that, because of the influence of Catholicism, many Hispanic men may be married to Hispanic women, and because of the Church’s stance on homosexuality as an ‘objective disorder’ may not be willing to admit homosexual liaisons to their wives. The wives of such men might be at risk and unaware of it, and so, not testing. They might pass on due to AIDS-related issues, without being treated for these issues.

Then for White men, the risk is 1 in 132; whereas, for White women the risk is 1 in 880. Either White women are extremely lucky, in regard to their lifetime HIV risk, or else they decline to test, for reasons of social status. If the latter turns out to be so, then I feel the turning point, for white women, will be when the pandemic reaches such proportions in the United States that it is clear their friends and neighbors have it, and so it will be socially acceptable to test for and treat HIV infection.

LIFETIME RISK OF HIV DIAGNOSIS AMONG MSM BY RACE/ETHNICITY

Image: “Lifetime Risk of HIV Diagnosis among MSM by Race/Ethnicity,” from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2016 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, published 2016; accessed 8 June 2017 … http://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/newsroom/2016/croi-2016.html … public domain

Image: “Lifetime Risk of HIV Diagnosis among MSM by Race/Ethnicity,” from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2016 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, published 2016; accessed 8 June 2017 … http://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/newsroom/2016/croi-2016.html … public domain

From this table, the lifetime risk for men having sex with men (MSM) is 50% … 1 in 2 people, for African American MSM. For Hispanic, MSM the risk is half that … 25%, or 1 in 4. For White MSM, the risk is 9%, or 1 in 11.

FOUR SCENARIOS OF THE POTENTIAL IMPACT OF EXPANDED HIV TESTING, TREATMENT AND PrEP IN THE UNITED STATES, 2015-2020

I like the below graph very much, as it shows how helpful testing and treatment would be in slowing the progress of the pandemic here in the United States. This slowing of the progress of the disease would, I feel, ease the effect of the pandemic on manpower, and on the U.S. economy. It would also make it easier to provide adequate education and medical care for HIV-infected patients. In terms of human suffering, as well, I feel that optimization of education, prevention, and treatment are of paramount importance.

As can be seen in the below graph, were this optimization to have occurred beginning in 2015, then in 2020 new infections would have been reduced from 265,330 to 80,270. That would have been a reduction of 70% … which is to say, a slowing of the rate of progress of the disease by 70%.

In future five-year intervals, we might expect the same statistic to apply. This, surely, is ample impetus for optimizing HIV education, prevention, and treatment as swiftly and thoroughly as possible.

Image: “Four Scenarios of the Potential Impact of Expanded HIV Testing, Treatment and PrEP in the United States, 2015-2020,” from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2016 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, published 2016; accessed 8 June 2017 … http://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/newsroom/2016/croi-2016.html … public domain
This bar graph shows four scenarios of the potential impact of expanded HIV testing, treatment and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use in the United States from 2015 to 2020.
The first bar shows that at current testing and treatment rates, there would be 265,330 new HIV infections in the U.S between 2015 and 2020.
The second bar shows that increasing the use of PrEP among high-risk populations (40 percent of men-who-have-sex-with-men; 10 percent of injecting drug users; and 10% of high-risk heterosexuals) could avert 48,221 new infections. This would mean that only 217,109 new HIV infections would occur in the U.S. from 2015 to 2020.
The third bar shows that increasing the number of people diagnosed with HIV who are on treatment to 85 percent, and ensuring that 60 percent achieve viral suppression would avert 88,908. Increasing PrEP use among high-risk populations at these higher treatment rates would avert an additional 31,988 new infections, reducing the total number of new HIV infections to 144,434.
The final bar shows that if we achieve the targets of the National HIV / AIDS Strategy (85 percent of people diagnosed are on treatment and 80 percent of those achieve viral suppression), we would avert 168,132 infections, with an additional 16,928 HIV infections prevented if PrEP was used as well, resulting in only 80,270 new HIV infections from 2015 to 2020.

Image: “Four Scenarios of the Potential Impact of Expanded HIV Testing, Treatment and PrEP in the United States, 2015-2020,” from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2016 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, published 2016; accessed 8 June 2017 … http://www.cdc.gov/nchhstp/newsroom/2016/croi-2016.html … public domain

This bar graph shows four scenarios of the potential impact of expanded HIV testing, treatment and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use in the United States from 2015 to 2020.

The first bar shows that at current testing and treatment rates, there would be 265,330 new HIV infections in the U.S between 2015 and 2020.

The second bar shows that increasing the use of PrEP among high-risk populations (40 percent of men-who-have-sex-with-men; 10 percent of injecting drug users; and 10% of high-risk heterosexuals) could avert 48,221 new infections. This would mean that only 217,109 new HIV infections would occur in the U.S. from 2015 to 2020.

The third bar shows that increasing the number of people diagnosed with HIV who are on treatment to 85 percent, and ensuring that 60 percent achieve viral suppression would avert 88,908. Increasing PrEP use among high-risk populations at these higher treatment rates would avert an additional 31,988 new infections, reducing the total number of new HIV infections to 144,434.

The final bar shows that if we achieve the targets of the National HIV / AIDS Strategy (85 percent of people diagnosed are on treatment and 80 percent of those achieve viral suppression), we would avert 168,132 infections, with an additional 16,928 HIV infections prevented if PrEP was used as well, resulting in only 80,270 new HIV infections from 2015 to 2020.

Here is another pdf file on the same topic …

Link: “Lifetime Risk of a Diagnosis of HIV Infection in the United States,” by Kristen L. Hess, PhD, MPHa, Xiaohong Hu, MSb, Amy Lansky, PhD, MPHc, Jonathan Mermin, MDd, and H. Irene Hall, PhD, MPHe, published in final edited form as:
Ann Epidemiol. 2017 April ; 27(4): 238–243. doi:10.1016/j.annepidem.2017.02.003 … file:///C:/Users/aclag/Downloads/cdc_46891_DS1.pdf ..

In love, light and joy,
I Am of the Stars

Link: “New HIV / AIDS Statistics from Truvada,” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 25 February 2019 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-bOa ..

For a complete list of my blogs and compendiums on HIV / AIDS see … Link: “Compendium: HIV / AIDS Pandemic,” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 2 March 2019 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-bPl ..

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