Tag Archives: California

Notes on Forestalling Social Unrest in California . by Alice B. Clagett *

Written on 12 April 2018; published on 6 December 2019

  • THOUGHTS ON PROVIDING STAGE ONE WORK FOR THE CALIFORNIA HOMELESS AT LESS THAN MINIMUM WAGE, IN EXCHANGE FOR SOCIAL SERVICES
    • Prison Work Programs for Less Than a Dollar an Hour
      • Prison Release Work Camps.
    • A Stage One Consideration in Employing California’s Homeless at Less Than the Minimum Wage
  • THOUGHTS ON SLOWING THE SPREAD OF HIV AND AIDS IN PRISONS
    • On Isolating HIV-Positive Prison Populations in Cell Blocks, Together with HIV-Positive Prison Guards
    • Conjugal Visits
  • HUMAN TRAFFICKING OF IMMIGRANTS TO THE UNITED STATES, COMPARED TO THAT IN CHINA
    • How China Deals with an Influx of Minimally Employable People from North Korea
    • How the United States Deals with an Influx of Minimally Employable People from Mexico
  • CONCLUSION

Dear Ones,

I wrote up these notes in April 2018, with a hope that I would soon finish them off. More than a year later, I have to figure I may never get round to that. I apologize to my reader that they are presented here in outline state …

THOUGHTS ON PROVIDING STAGE ONE WORK FOR THE CALIFORNIA HOMELESS AT LESS THAN MINIMUM WAGE, IN EXCHANGE FOR SOCIAL SERVICES

I have a thought that Stage One work might be provided the California homeless at less than minimum wage, in exchange for social services such as State One housing, necessary medical treatment, food, and temporary housing.

I note we have precedents in paying less than the minimum wage, here in America: Commission sales work, work on small farms, and newspaper delivery, for instance …

Link: “When Must Employers Pay the Minimum Wage?, updated by Sachi Barreiro, Attorney, at NOLO … https://www.nolo.com/legal-encyclopedia/employers-pay-minimum-wage-law-29600.html ..

Prison Work Programs for Less Than a Dollar an Hour

Link: “How Much Do Incarcerated People Earn in Each State?” by Wendy Sawyer, 10 April 2017, in Prison Policy Initiative … https://www.prisonpolicy.org/blog/2017/04/10/wages/ ..

Thus we have a precedent, in the exceptional circumstance of incarceration, for offering work at a great deal less than the minimum wage. Could we build upon this precedent by offering work training to our felons or released felons or homeless, at far less than minimum wage?

If the precedent might be stretched in this way, then we might have the setting for an economic bounce-back, here in California, as greater numbers of the currently unemployed are able to find employment.

Prison Release Work Camps. I am thinking that something like this might be good if, for lack of funds, we have to release the prison population. For those who are ‘unregenerate’ … to use an old-time term … work camps might be set up or ‘rough and tumble’ work might be provided as an alternative to imprisonment, at greatly less than the minimum wage. This topic I discussed in a little more detail here …

Link: “Ought the United States, like North Korea, Have Forced Labor?” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 21 May 2019 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-cQw ..

A Stage One Consideration in Employing California’s Homeless at Less Than the Minimum Wage

Here is a Stage One consideration: Let’s try to figure out some way to get around the minimum wage, for people who are unhomed, and who are receiving extra social services, in the event the United States government is not able to participate, here in California, in ameliorating the situation, and easing the social unrest.

For instance, could we offer something more akin to prison labor … voluntary labor, and a very small wage, in exchange for housing and food and medical care? Could we offer that, in camps especially set up for that?

What would be the long-term situation with regard to those that California cannot now find work for at minimum wage, and who must find work? If employment at less than minimum wage in exchange for social services were to be offered as a temporary, short-term Phase One, then what would be Phases Two and Three?

THOUGHTS ON SLOWING THE SPREAD OF HIV AND AIDS IN PRISONS

On Isolating HIV-Positive Prison Populations in Cell Blocks, Together with HIV-Positive Prison Guards

In United States prisons, HIV tests might be used to separate the HIV-positive prison populations … and the HIV-positive prison guards … physically, from those prisoners and guards who are HIV-negative. These tests need to be performed every 6 months, as I understand it, and also one month after possible exposure to the virus. HIV tests might be made routine in prison medical facilities, not only for the safety of prisoners and guards, but also for the sake of the infectible law-abiding populations upon whom prisoners might prey, either as prostitutes or as sexual predators, after their release.

Conjugal Visits

I think that, to prevent the spread of HIV and AIDS amongst United States prison populations, we ought to consider allowing conjugal or significant other visits in our federal prisons, and in those state prisons that currently do not do so.

Conjugal visits might lead to less intercourse amongst inmates, and less intercourse between inmates and prison guards, so that HIV might spread more slowly amongst the prison population. I feel that conjugal visits might also lead to less violence amongst prisoners.

Such a policy also might help prisoners who have been in long-time-paired relationships to preserve those relationships while imprisoned. It might help families stay together through the financial hardship of imprisonment of a parent, and that might positively affect community life.

HUMAN TRAFFICKING OF IMMIGRANTS TO THE UNITED STATES, COMPARED TO THAT IN CHINA

I have been perusing the “CIA World Factbook” online …

Link: “World Factbook,” by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) … https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/ ..

… and have found it full of information pertinent to forestalling social unrest in California. For instance, from my reading, it seems to me that the human trafficking of immigrants to China from North Korea in our lifetime is, in some ways, analogous to the human trafficking of immigrants to the United States from Mexico.

How China Deals with an Influx of Minimally Employable People from North Korea

Apparently, there are masses of people in North Korea, whom the government forces into forced labor in China …

“… North Korea does not fully comply with minimum standards for the elimination of [human] trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; the government continued to participate in human trafficking through its use of domestic forced labor camps and the provision of forced labor to foreign governments through bilateral contracts; officials did not demonstrate any efforts to address human trafficking through prosecution, protection, or prevention measures; no known investigations, prosecutions, or convictions of trafficking offenders or officials complicit in trafficking-related offenses were conducted; the government also made no efforts to identify or protect trafficking victims and did not permit NGOs to assist victims (2015) …” –from Link: “CIA World Factbook, North Korea,” in the section: Transnational Issues … Subheading: Trafficking in personshttps://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/geos/kn.html … public domain

Korean people also may flee to China of their own free will so as to escape starvation …

“… risking arrest, imprisonment, and deportation, tens of thousands of North Koreans cross into China to escape famine, economic privation, and political oppression … –from Link: “CIA World Factbook, North Korea,” in the section: Transnational Issues … subheading: Disputes – International https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/geos/kn.html … public domain

Those types of labor available to trafficked peoples sometimes may be beneath the level of misery that is acceptable here in the United States …

Link: “Trafficking in Persons Report June 2017,” by United States of America Department of State … https://www.hsdl.org/?view&did=801874This is a pdf download.

It might be prostitution. It might be illegal activities such as theft. It might be begging. They might be held by gangs that are ‘beneath the law’ and forced to be members of those gangs. This, to me, is unacceptable.

How the United States Deals with an Influx of Minimally Employable People from Mexico

The situation with immigrants from North Korean to China is analogous, in some regards, to the situation with immigrants from Mexico to the United States. Immigrants from Mexico are not forced by the United States government into inhumane kinds of labor, but they may find themselves in those kinds of situations … living In dug-out caves in the Earth, for instance. And doing seasonal, migrant labor. Or young women or children may find themselves forced into lives of prostitution by pimps.

One thing we might look at, going forward, is how job training might be offered new immigrants, here in the United States, so as to broaden the scope of job opportunities for which they are eligible. This type of job training is doubly beneficial: It helps raise the living standard of immigrants; and it helps lessen the spiritual burden of human trafficking in the United States and uplift our nation through good works in our community.

The philanthropy we offer those caught in the throes of human trafficking is a kindness we offer our children as well, for they will look forward to a better educated community through whose informed choices may be sculpted a brighter tomorrow for all America.

CONCLUSION

In conclusion, I feel that Los Angeles in particular, due to such stressors as homelessness and released felons, faces the spectre of social unrest at present. What to do? I feel we must look at what other countries do when faced with these stressors. We must not turn away from innovative solutions simply because we feel they are beneath us, as Americans.

I feel it is because we feel this: that the lesser good we are able to provide the homeless and released felons is beneath us, and unworthy of them, that we have found ourselves for ten years to be in stalemate as a city.

We are unable to provide the level of benefits and care that has been, with hopeful optimism, voted into California law. Massive problems lie before us, and have done so for 10 years now. California is a Sanctuary State for those fleeing from downright extermination in the crueler states of our great Union.

Though we are that to many, we have not the funds to help those seeking sanctuary in the manner afforded the homeless, the helpless, those seeking shelter, food, and work in days of old.

Here in Los Angeles we must make bold to provide what we may to those who have nothing at all. Though it be against the laws of our nation, and against those of our State, we must do what we can. We must offer what we may. We must open our hearts, still our doubts, and come up with sensible, novel solutions to the new problems that lie before us.

In love, light and joy,
I Am of the Stars

Video: “Everyone In–Supportive Housing Across L.A.,” by Everyone In LA, 8 March 2018 …  https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=22&v=QnZWabk8mO0 ..

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Call for Action: Lower the Cash Price for HIV Medicines in California . by Alice B. Clagett

Written and published on 6 December 2019

Dear Ones,

Here are rough notes on the need to lower the cash price of HIV medicines in California …

As the lifetime treatment of HIV is about $367,000, and as I estimate the lifetime wage of the average American to be about $461,000, it is clear that the HIV bloom nationwide will make it difficult for families that test positive for HIV to meet their medical expenses.

In addition, there may come a time when Obamacare is compromised with regard to providing HIV and AIDS medicines to Americans. In advance of such a possibility, I suggest looking into lowering the cost of AIDS medicines so that they may be affordable to HIV-compromised patients, as cash outlay, and even without the relief of having medical insurance.

The question is, how may drug companies be prevailed upon to lower their costs so that they are affordable? Maybe our California legislature will come up with an answer for us? My prayer is that they may.

In love, light and joy,
I Am of the Stars

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Except where otherwise noted, “Awakening with Planet Earth” by Alice B. Clagett … https://awakeningwithplanetearth.com … is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-SA 4.0) … https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/ ..

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healthcare, HIV pandemic, community health, health, United States, California, Western medicine,

Community Health Call to Action: HIV Testing and Segregation in Health Care and Education? . by Alice B. Clagett

Written on 4 December 2019 and published on 5 December 2019

  • CALL FOR HIV TESTING AND SEGREGATION OF HIV-POSITIVE HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS IN SENSITIVE HEALTH CARE SECTORS
  • CALL FOR HIV TESTING AND SEGREGATION OF HIV-POSITIVE CHILD CARE, DAY CARE AND GRADE SCHOOL CARE GIVERS, EDUCATORS, AND CHILDREN

Dear Ones,

There is, I feel, an urgent need here in the San Fernando Valley, California,for testing and segregation of HIV-positive people in sensitive health care and education sectors  as follows …

CALL FOR HIV TESTING AND SEGREGATION OF HIV-POSITIVE HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS IN SENSITIVE HEALTH CARE SECTORS

In addition, at the present moment it is of great importance to monitor the HIV status of United States physicians, especially surgeons  and others who perform invasive procedures, and the HIV status of phlebotomists (medical technicians who draw blood).

We must decide, community by community, whether those in sensitive health care positions who test positive for HIV ought to be moved to less sensitive health care sectors; or whether they might be reserved for the use of HIV positive patients.

CALL FOR HIV TESTING AND SEGREGATION OF HIV-POSITIVE CHILD CARE, DAY CARE AND GRADE SCHOOL CARE GIVERS, EDUCATORS, AND CHILDREN

I have read that HIV can be transmitted through mucus or blood or semen contact … as through kissing or diaper changing, or through dressing open wounds, or through sexual intercourse . Thus I feel that it is of equal importance, at the present moment, to monitor the HIV status of child care and day care providers and of grade school educators and also of children starting with newborns, and on up through puberty.

As above, we must decide, community by community, whether to restrict HIV-positive early childhood care givers and grade school educators to care or education of children who are HIV positive, and whether to separate children into HIV-positive and HIV-negative groups in child care, day care, and grade schools.

In love, light and joy,
I Am of the Stars

See also … Link: “CDC Reports: More HIV Testing, Treatment Needed: Agency Discusses Initiative to End HIV Epidemic,” by AFFP (American Academy of Family Physicians), 27 March 2019 … https://www.aafp.org/news/health-of-the-public/20190327mmwr-hiv.html ..

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HIV pandemic, AIDS pandemic, Community health, education, child-rearing, United States, California, Los Angeles, San Fernando Valley, phlebotomists, surgeons, heath, Western medicine, calls to action,

Ought the United States, like North Korea, Have Forced Labor? . by Alice B. Clagett

Published on 21 May 2019

Image: “Who doesn’t work doesn’t eat” … Uzbek, Tashkent, 1920 (Mardjani Foundation), author unknown, 1920, public domain.

Image: “Who doesn’t work doesn’t eat” … Uzbek, Tashkent, 1920 (Mardjani Foundation), author unknown, 1920, public domain.

  • HOW NORTH KOREA DEALS WITH INCURABLE POVERTY AND STARVATION
  • FORCED LABOR IN NORTH KOREA AS A BARTER SUBSTITUTE FOR THE COINED TAX SYSTEM
  • HOW THE UNITED STATES EMPLOYS FORCED LABOR IN OTHER GUISE
    • Community Service in Lieu of Prison Time
    • Prison ‘Work Release’ Programs
  • ADVANTAGES OF OFFERING FELONS RURAL AND WILDERNESS WORK CAMP OPPORTUNITIES
    • Work Camps as Work Ethic Education
    • On Offering Habitual Offenders ‘Rough and Tumble’ Jobs Far From Urban Centers
  • CONCLUSION

Dear Ones,

Here in the United States, we are faced with lack of funds to deal with big problems of homelessness, unemployment, underemployment, and poverty-line living. For some years now, these difficult problems have been before us, and felicitous solutions, to date, do not avail.

Why is it that we have not found viable, long-term solutions to these problems? I feel it is because we have not felt desperate enough, or perhaps innovative enough, to look outside the envelope, and see what other nations that have been facing similar problems have come up with in terms of solutions.

I took a look at the United States Central Intelligence Agency’s “World Factbook,” hoping to come up with some off-the-wall offerings, and came up with the example of the dire poverty faced by North Korea, and its institution of Forced Labor for public projects. Here is part of what I found out …

HOW NORTH KOREA DEALS WITH INCURABLE POVERTY AND STARVATION

As I see it, in North Korea, the problem is intractable, long-term, incurable poverty. I have for you this quotation from the “CIA World Factbook,” with regard to the grim facts of the North Korean economy …

“North Korea, one of the world’s most centrally directed and least open economies, faces chronic economic problems. Industrial capital stock is nearly beyond repair as a result of years of underinvestment, shortages of spare parts, and poor maintenance. Large-scale military spending and development of its ballistic missile and nuclear program severely draws off resources needed for investment and civilian consumption. Industrial and power outputs have stagnated for years at a fraction of pre-1990 levels. Frequent weather-related crop failures aggravated chronic food shortages caused by on-going systemic problems, including a lack of arable land, collective farming practices, poor soil quality, insufficient fertilization, and persistent shortages of tractors and fuel.

“The mid 1990s through mid 2000s were marked by severe famine and widespread starvation. Significant food aid was provided by the international community through 2009. Since that time, food assistance has declined significantly. In the last few years, domestic corn and rice production has improved, although domestic production does not fully satisfy demand. A large portion of the population continues to suffer from prolonged malnutrition and poor living conditions. Since 2002, the government has allowed semi-private markets to begin selling a wider range of goods, allowing North Koreans to partially make up for diminished public distribution system rations. It also implemented changes in the management process of communal farms in an effort to boost agricultural output …” – from LInk: “CIA World Factbook,  North Korea” … https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/geos/kn.html … public domain.

FORCED LABOR IN NORTH KOREA AS A BARTER SUBSTITUTE FOR THE COINED TAX SYSTEM

Rather than asking people, who have nothing, for taxes, instead North Korea is conscripting people into forced labor situations for nothing … for free … to help with government projects …

… North Korea is a source country for men, women, and children who are subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; many North Korean workers recruited to work abroad under bilateral contracts with foreign governments, most often Russia and China, are subjected to forced labor and do not have a choice in the work the government assigns them, are not free to change jobs, and face government reprisals if they try to escape or complain to outsiders; tens of thousands of North Koreans, including children, held in prison camps are subjected to forced labor, including logging, mining, and farming; many North Korean women and girls, lured by promises of food, jobs, and freedom, have migrated to China illegally to escape poor social and economic conditions only to be forced into prostitution, domestic service, or agricultural work through forced marriages.” – from Link: “CIA World Factbook, North Korea,” in the section: Transnational Issues … Subheading: Trafficking in persons … https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/geos/kn.html … public domain.

To some degree, the ‘forcing of labor’ in North Korea, I feel in some instances may be a substitute for the coined tax system … It is more like a ‘barter’ tax, you know? We might look at this practice and offhandedly think of it as a completely evil thing, whereas, in fact, it may be a necessary thing there, so as to keep the economy alive, in a situation where everyone faces starvation whenever (as is often the case) weather conditions are not good.

Image: “A farmer inspects his ruined crops in famine-plagued South Hwanghae province, where a man is said to have been executed recently after being reported for eating his two children,” Damir SagolJ, Reuters, http://assets.nydailynews.com/polopoly_fs/1.1250764.1359505983!/img/httpImage/image.jpg_gen/derivatives/article_1200/article-north-korea-hunger.jpg ..

HOW THE UNITED STATES EMPLOYS FORCED LABOR IN OTHER GUISE

I feel that we have various forms of forced labor here in the United States … forced labor that may be less injurious to human rights, but nevertheless forced labor. It is just that we cushion it with other terms … more aesthetic terms … according to our ideas of how things ought to be. Here are two kinds of ‘forced labor’ that we look favorably upon in the United States …

Community Service in Lieu of Prison Time

For instance, North Korea has forced labor part of the year … during which the people in the towns have to work for the government for free or for almost nothing … That has analogies to community service at, say, $40 a day, in lieu of prison time for Coloradans.

Link: “Alternatives in Imposition of Sentence in Colorado CRS 18-1.3-104,” by Colorado Legal Defense Group … https://www.shouselaw.com/colorado/CO_alternative_sentences.html ..

Prison ‘Work Release’ Programs

Then, I noticed in Mendocino County, California, there are various prison ‘work release’ programs … home detention, work release, and work furlough …

Link: Mendocino County Sheriff’s Office: Corrections,” http://www.mendocinosheriff.com/corrections/workrelease.html ..

ADVANTAGES OF OFFERING FELONS RURAL AND WILDERNESS WORK CAMP OPPORTUNITIES

Work Camps as Work Ethic Education

I recall that, in Russia and China, they think of forced labor as a way of educating people with regard to the work ethic … inculcating a notion of being productive members of society. And we might consider it like that too.

If we cannot house the felons in urban prisons, we could expand our programs to house them in work camps in rural or wilderness areas. These work camps might be viewed as offering education in the work ethic, and in that way, helping felons to qualify for good jobs after their release.

On Offering Habitual Offenders ‘Rough and Tumble’ Jobs Far From Urban Centers

In addition to providing work ethic education, work camp job experience would likely provide improved physical conditioning. This might help released felons find ‘rough and tumble’ jobs far from urban centers, occupations such as lumberjacking, or tramp steamer crew, for instance. Maybe, work in the mines, or in the deserts, or on oil rigs. There might be a segment of felons to whom rough and tumble jobs appeal; and this appeal might decrease recidivism.

There may be felons with many offenses, and whom we are unable to keep in prison. Yet if they are released, they might look for criminal work, and not wish to integrate into the general community. In some cases, they might fall into the category ‘antisocial personalities’. In such instances, it might be good if they found work away from the general population.

If California is unable to house multiple offenders, we might also consider offering those serving time the option to become a free person, or a semi-free person, in an occupation that is far from the general public … where the released prisoners cannot hurt the general public.

CONCLUSION

My thought as to whether forced labor might successfully be employed in the United States is this: Considering the American way of life, forced labor could never succeed here if it ruthlessly trammels human rights. I do feel, on the other hand, that the choice of modified versions of forced labor … as amongst the prison populations, or for released felons, or for the indigent … might be offered as an alternative, a free will choice, that might prove appealing, were its benefits to be properly laid out, and then offered by way of explanation to those undertaking it.

In love, light and joy,
I Am of the Stars

See also … Link: “Notes on Forestalling Social Unrest in California,” by Alice B. Clagett, written on 12 April 2018; published on 6 December 2019 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-8xT ..

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Except where otherwise noted, “Awakening with Planet Earth” by Alice B. Clagett … https://awakeningwithplanetearth.com … is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-SA 4.0) … https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/ ..

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How Many Ex-Felons and Non-Ex-Felons in California Have HIV? . by Alice B. Clagett

Published on 15 October 2018

  • CRUNCHING THE NUMBERS (very approximately)
    • 20 percent of Californians are ex-felons
    • As of 2015, 0.8% of California prisoners had HIV
    • 63,264 ex-felons in California in 2017 have HIV
    • 62,448 ex-felons in California in 2015 had HIV
    • 59,631 HIV cases for non-ex-felons in California in 2015
    • 31,224,000 Californian non-ex-felons in 2015
    • 0.2% HIV rate for non-ex-felons in California in 2015
    • 122,079 HIV cases in California overall in 2015
  • CONCLUSIONS
    • About 20 percent, or 1 in 5, Californians are ex-felons
    • This subgroup accounts for a little over half the HIV cases in California
    • While most California prisoners are being tested for HIV, non-ex-felons may not be aware of their HIV status. The reported HIV rate among non-ex-felons may begin to increase as more and more people avail themselves of the annual tests provided for through Medicare and MediCal.
    • Comments on 2015 Prisoner HIV Incidence by State
      • The HIV incidence for both California ex-felons and California non-ex-felons is in the mid-range, compared to other states
      • Importance of Timely Statistical Reporting, Considering the quick-flash nature of the course of a pandemic
      • Are we at the beginning of an HIV pandemic upsurge?
      • I notice a great deal of variance in the HIV rates among prisoners by state
      • Request for clarification of figures for near zero HIV rate among prisoners in some states
    • HIV Screening and Viral Suppression in California Prisons May Be Helping Prevent the Spread of HIV Among HIV-Negative California Prison Populations
      • Are condoms available in prisons?

Dear Ones,

CRUNCHING THE NUMBERS  (very approximately)

I read that 20 percent of Californians are ex-felons …

Link: “Study estimates U.S. population with felony convictions,” by Alan Flurry, 1 October 2017, in UGA Today, https://news.uga.edu/total-us-population-with-felony-convictions/ ..

… and that made me wonder about the HIV positive status of felons and ex-felons, compared to the general California population, and also about overall numbers of Californians with HIV.

I have crunched the most recent numbers I could find, as follows …

As of 2015, 0.8% of California prisoners had HIV … 

LInk: “HIV in Prisons, 2015 – Statistical Tables,” by Laura M. Maruschak and Jennifer Bronson, Ph.D., BJS Statisticians, August 2017, NCJ 250641, US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics, https://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/hivp15st.pdf  … See “Appendix table 3. Estimated number of prisoners who had HIV in the custody of state and federal correctional authorities, by jurisdiction, 2010–2015”

. . . . .

Per Google, the California population in 2017 was 39.54 million.
Assuming that the HIV rate for ex-felons might be the same as that for California prisoners in 2015, then the number of ex-felons in California with HIV in 2017 might roughly be estimated as …

(the 2017 California population)   X    (the percent of Californians who are ex-felons)  X  (the 2015 California prison HIV rate)  =

39.54 million people  X  20% ex-felons  X 0.8% HIV rate = approximately 63,264 ex-felons in California in 2017 have HIV

. . . . .

On to the question of how many ex-felons in California have HIV …

Per Google, the California population in 2015 was 39.03 million.

For California overall, 122,079 people were living with HIV as of 2015 …

Link: “LocalData: California,” in AIDSVu, https://aidsvu.org/state/california/ ..

Of these, roughly 20% were ex-felons, for whom the HIV rate is roughly 0.8%. So the number of ex-felons in California with HIV in 2015 might roughly be estimated as …

(the 2015 California population)   X    (the percent of Californians who are ex-felons)  X  (the 2015 California prison HIV rate)  =

39.03 million people  X   20% ex-felons  X 0.8% HIV rate = approximately 62,448 ex-felons in California in 2015 had HIV

. . . . .

And now, back to the 122,079 people overall living with HIV in California as of 2016 … The number of these who were Californians and not ex-felons, might be estimated as ..

(122,079 Californians overall living with HIV in 2015)  less  (62,448 ex-felons with HIV in California in 2015) = approximately 59,631 HIV cases for non-ex-felons in California in 2015

. . . . .

Then, the number of Californian non-ex-felons in 2015 might be estimated as …

(the number of Californians in 2015)  less  (the number of Californian ex-felons in 2015) =

39.03 million people in California in 2015  X 4/5 non-ex-felons = 31,224,000 Californian non-ex-felons in 2015

. . . . .

Then  the HIV rate for Californian non-ex-felons in 2015 might be estimated as …

(the number of Californian non-ex-felons with HIV in 2015)  divided by  (the number of Californian non-ex-felons in 2015) …

(59,631 HIV cases for non-ex-felons in California in 2015)  divided by (31,224,000 Californian non-ex-felons in 2015)  =  0.2% HIV rate for non-ex-felons in California in 2015

. . . . .

To the total number of HIV cases in California in 2015 would be the non-ex-felon cases plus the ex-felon cases, as follows …

(59,631 HIV cases for non-ex-felons in California in 2015)  plus  (62,448 ex-felons in California in 2015 with HIV) = approximately 122,079 HIV cases in California overall in 2015 (which looks to be roughly accurate, based on other reading I did).

CONCLUSION

I am hoping that the above figures are a pretty good ballpark; a lot depends on getting timely, accurate data. Then there is the question of crunching the numbers accurately.

Overall, I notice that ..

  • About 20 percent, or 1 in 5, Californians are ex-felons
  • This subgroup accounts for a little over half the HIV cases in California
  • While most California prisoners are being tested for HIV, non-ex-felons may not be aware of their HIV status. The reported HIV rate among non-ex-felons may begin to increase as more and more people avail themselves of the annual tests provided for through Medicare and MediCal.

Comments on 2015 Prisoner HIV Incidence by State

The HIV incidence for both California ex-felons and California non-ex-felons is in the mid-range, compared to other state … It is much lower than I had intuited in 2015. But then, these figures are for 2015, and the bloom I intuited may have happened in the last 3 years.

Importance of Timely Statistical Reporting, Considering the quick-flash nature of the course of a pandemic. I feel it is important to place a priority on getting these statistics out to the general public in as timely fashion as possible, because we may be facing a logarithmic upsurge this year. In fact, for all we know, it may already have happened.

Are we at the beginning of an HIV pandemic upsurge? There is some small indication of an impending upsurge in the literature. For instance, in the below link, I found a statement that the California HIV rate had increased 5.4% between 2012 and 2016. The years 2017 and 2018 are still an open question.

Link: “California HIV Surveillance Report — 2016,” by CA Office of AIDS, California Department of Public Health, https://www.cdph.ca.gov/Programs/CID/DOA/CDPH%20Document%20Library/California%20HIV%20Surveillance%20Report%20-%202016.pdf ..

I notice a great deal of variance in the HIV rates among prisoners by state. While the rate was 0.8% in California, it was 3% or more in Florida, Louisiana and New York …

Request for clarification of figures for near zero HIV rate among prisoners in some states. And there are some states … notably Montana and Nevada … with almost no HIV rate amongst prisoners. Whether this means they are being murdered, or that there is little HIV overall in those states, is a topic on which I ask clarification.

LInk: “HIV in Prisons, 2015 – Statistical Tables,” by Laura M. Maruschak and Jennifer Bronson, Ph.D., BJS Statisticians, August 2017, NCJ 250641, US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics, https://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/hivp15st.pdf  … See “Appendix table 3. Estimated number of prisoners who had HIV in the custody of state and federal correctional authorities, by jurisdiction, 2010–2015”

HIV Screening and Viral Suppression in California Prisons May Be Helping Prevent the Spread of HIV Among HIV-Negative California Prison Populations

Also good news are statistics I read on HIV screening for California prisoners, which began in 2010. According to the below link, in 2013 California prisoners were screened for HIV, and almost all who tested positive were put on drug therapy. Of those, 88 percent attained viral suppression.

I have read that HIV-positive sexually active people who have attained viral suppression, and who use condoms … assuming that condoms are available to prisoners? … are much less likely to transmit HIV to their sexual partners. So the attainment of viral suppression among prisoners would be an important factor in preventing the spread of HIV among HIV-negative California prison populations.

Link: “California Prisons See Benefit in Routine HIV Testing,” by Barrett Newkirk, 26 February 2016, in ‘The Desert Sun,” https://www.desertsun.com/story/news/health/2016/02/26/california-prisons-hiv/80987912/ ..

n love, light and joy,
I Am of the Stars
…………………..

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imprisonment, California, correctional system, community health, HIV, AIDS,

California Call to Action: HIV Transmission Rates and Other News Updates on HIV / AIDS . by Alice B. Clagett

Published on 24 August 2018

  • CALL TO ACTION: CAN CALIFORNIA PROVIDE ART (ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY) TO HIV-POSITIVE SEX WORKERS WHO LACK HEALTH INSURANCE, SO AS TO PREVENT HIV TRANSMISSION?
  • CALIFORNIA LAW REGARDING INTENTIONAL TRANSMISSION OF HIV
  • MEDICAID AND MEDICARE WILL PAY FOR HIV TESTING AND TREATMENT
  • HIV TRANSMISSION RATES LOOK QUITE OPTIMISTIC PROVIDED HIV-POSITIVE PEOPLE USE ART

Dear Ones,

CALL TO ACTION: CAN CALIFORNIA PROVIDE ART (ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY) TO HIV-POSITIVE SEX WORKERS WHO LACK HEALTH INSURANCE, SO AS TO PREVENT HIV TRANSMISSION?

I’ve read some articles recently that state HIV transmission rates are quite low, especially if blood titer is low. As ART (antiretroviral therapy) keeps blood titer low, I suggest providing HIV-Positive Sex Workers with ART, even if they don’t have health insurance, so as to prevent the transmission of HIV to their clients and their clients’ wives.

I ask that the State of California consider this proposal on an urgent basis.

CALIFORNIA LAW REGARDING INTENTIONAL TRANSMISSION OF HIV

I note that California has lowered the penalty for intentional transmission of HIV from a felony to a misdemeanor as of 2018 …

Link: “California lowers penalty for knowingly exposing partners to HIV,” by Alaa Elassar and Laura Diaz-Zuniga, CNN, updated 2:51 PM ET, Tue October 10, 2017 … https://www.cnn.com/2017/10/07/health/california-hiv-bill-signed/index.html ..

MEDICAID AND MEDICARE WILL PAY FOR HIV TESTING AND TREATMENT

I see also that Medicaid and Medicare are covering the cost of annual HIV tests and treatment now,

Link: “HIV Screening,” at Medicare.gov … https://www.medicare.gov/coverage/hiv-screening.html ..

Link: “Medicaid Coverage of HIV Testing,” in KFF: Henry J Kaiser Family Foundation …  https://www.kff.org/hivaids/state-indicator/hiv-testing/?currentTimeframe=0&sortModel=%7B%22colId%22:%22Location%22,%22sort%22:%22asc%22%7D ..

LInk: “Paying for HIV Care and Treatment,” at HIV.gov … https://www.hiv.gov/hiv-basics/staying-in-hiv-care/hiv-treatment/paying-for-hiv-care-and-treatment ..

… and that the Affordable Care Act has broadened cost protection for treatment of HIV and AIDS …

Link: “The Affordable Care Act and HIV/AIDS,” in HIV.gov … https://www.hiv.gov/federal-response/policies-issues/the-affordable-care-act-and-hiv-aids ..

HIV TRANSMISSION RATES LOOK QUITE OPTIMISTIC PROVIDED HIV-POSITIVE PEOPLE USE ART

Data on HIV transmission rates are looking quite optimistic. This article in HealthLine, for instance …

Link: “Exploring HIV Transmission Rates,” in HealthLine … https://www.healthline.com/health/hiv-aids/hiv-transmission-rates ..

… states that receptive rectal intercourse with a partner results in AIDS transmission in 138 out of 10,000 sex acts

… Receptive penile-vaginal sex has a transmission rate of 8 in 10,000 sex acts, and

— Insertive penile-vaginal sex has a transmission risk of 4 in 10,000 sex acts

And this article …

Link: “9 Myths about HIV/AIDS,” from HealthLine … https://www.healthline.com/health/hiv-aids/misconceptions-about-hiv-aids#3 ..

… states that HIV-positive women who would like to have children have a risk as low as 1% of transmitting HIV to their fetus, provided they have been on ART for a while.

… and also that HIV-positive men who are on ART and whose viral load is undetectable have nearly zero risk of transmitting HIV to offspring in the act of conception.

This article …

Link: “Preventing Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV.| in HIV.gov, 24 May 2018 … https://aidsinfo.nih.gov/understanding-hiv-aids/fact-sheets/20/50/preventing-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hiv ..

… states that the rate of transmission of HIV from a mother to her child are as low as 2%, provided the mom takes ART while pregnant and while giving birth, and provided the newborn has a course of newborn ART for 4-6 weeks after birth.

As the outlook regarding HIV transmission rates keeps evolving as new data are analyzed, I feel it is important to check on new research results from time to time.

In love, light and joy,
I Am of the Stars
…………………..

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Call to Action: Legalize Drugs in California . by Alice B. Clagett

Dear Ones,

A Call to Action for the State of California in the week after Easter. A Summary follows the video  …

VIDEO BY ALICE

SUMMARY OF THE VIDEO

Hello, Dear Ones, It’s Alice. I Am of the Stars. And this is a Call to Action.

I’d like for California to legalize all drugs, and tax them, and use the tax money to balance the California budget.

God bless you all, in this week after Easter, when Spring is in the air, and new hope is everywhere.

In love, light and joy,
I Am of the Stars
…………………..

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…………………………………………………….
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call to action, drugs, war on drugs, social issues, United States Constitution, taxes.