Tag Archives: work furlough

Notes on Forestalling Social Unrest in California . by Alice B. Clagett *

Written on 12 April 2018; published on 6 December 2019

  • THOUGHTS ON PROVIDING STAGE ONE WORK FOR THE CALIFORNIA HOMELESS AT LESS THAN MINIMUM WAGE, IN EXCHANGE FOR SOCIAL SERVICES
    • Prison Work Programs for Less Than a Dollar an Hour
      • Prison Release Work Camps.
    • A Stage One Consideration in Employing California’s Homeless at Less Than the Minimum Wage
  • THOUGHTS ON SLOWING THE SPREAD OF HIV AND AIDS IN PRISONS
    • On Isolating HIV-Positive Prison Populations in Cell Blocks, Together with HIV-Positive Prison Guards
    • Conjugal Visits
  • HUMAN TRAFFICKING OF IMMIGRANTS TO THE UNITED STATES, COMPARED TO THAT IN CHINA
    • How China Deals with an Influx of Minimally Employable People from North Korea
    • How the United States Deals with an Influx of Minimally Employable People from Mexico
  • CONCLUSION

Dear Ones,

I wrote up these notes in April 2018, with a hope that I would soon finish them off. More than a year later, I have to figure I may never get round to that. I apologize to my reader that they are presented here in outline state …

THOUGHTS ON PROVIDING STAGE ONE WORK FOR THE CALIFORNIA HOMELESS AT LESS THAN MINIMUM WAGE, IN EXCHANGE FOR SOCIAL SERVICES

I have a thought that Stage One work might be provided the California homeless at less than minimum wage, in exchange for social services such as State One housing, necessary medical treatment, food, and temporary housing.

I note we have precedents in paying less than the minimum wage, here in America: Commission sales work, work on small farms, and newspaper delivery, for instance …

Link: “When Must Employers Pay the Minimum Wage?, updated by Sachi Barreiro, Attorney, at NOLO … https://www.nolo.com/legal-encyclopedia/employers-pay-minimum-wage-law-29600.html ..

Prison Work Programs for Less Than a Dollar an Hour

Link: “How Much Do Incarcerated People Earn in Each State?” by Wendy Sawyer, 10 April 2017, in Prison Policy Initiative … https://www.prisonpolicy.org/blog/2017/04/10/wages/ ..

Thus we have a precedent, in the exceptional circumstance of incarceration, for offering work at a great deal less than the minimum wage. Could we build upon this precedent by offering work training to our felons or released felons or homeless, at far less than minimum wage?

If the precedent might be stretched in this way, then we might have the setting for an economic bounce-back, here in California, as greater numbers of the currently unemployed are able to find employment.

Prison Release Work Camps. I am thinking that something like this might be good if, for lack of funds, we have to release the prison population. For those who are ‘unregenerate’ … to use an old-time term … work camps might be set up or ‘rough and tumble’ work might be provided as an alternative to imprisonment, at greatly less than the minimum wage. This topic I discussed in a little more detail here …

Link: “Ought the United States, like North Korea, Have Forced Labor?” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 21 May 2019 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-cQw ..

A Stage One Consideration in Employing California’s Homeless at Less Than the Minimum Wage

Here is a Stage One consideration: Let’s try to figure out some way to get around the minimum wage, for people who are unhomed, and who are receiving extra social services, in the event the United States government is not able to participate, here in California, in ameliorating the situation, and easing the social unrest.

For instance, could we offer something more akin to prison labor … voluntary labor, and a very small wage, in exchange for housing and food and medical care? Could we offer that, in camps especially set up for that?

What would be the long-term situation with regard to those that California cannot now find work for at minimum wage, and who must find work? If employment at less than minimum wage in exchange for social services were to be offered as a temporary, short-term Phase One, then what would be Phases Two and Three?

THOUGHTS ON SLOWING THE SPREAD OF HIV AND AIDS IN PRISONS

On Isolating HIV-Positive Prison Populations in Cell Blocks, Together with HIV-Positive Prison Guards

In United States prisons, HIV tests might be used to separate the HIV-positive prison populations … and the HIV-positive prison guards … physically, from those prisoners and guards who are HIV-negative. These tests need to be performed every 6 months, as I understand it, and also one month after possible exposure to the virus. HIV tests might be made routine in prison medical facilities, not only for the safety of prisoners and guards, but also for the sake of the infectible law-abiding populations upon whom prisoners might prey, either as prostitutes or as sexual predators, after their release.

Conjugal Visits

I think that, to prevent the spread of HIV and AIDS amongst United States prison populations, we ought to consider allowing conjugal or significant other visits in our federal prisons, and in those state prisons that currently do not do so.

Conjugal visits might lead to less intercourse amongst inmates, and less intercourse between inmates and prison guards, so that HIV might spread more slowly amongst the prison population. I feel that conjugal visits might also lead to less violence amongst prisoners.

Such a policy also might help prisoners who have been in long-time-paired relationships to preserve those relationships while imprisoned. It might help families stay together through the financial hardship of imprisonment of a parent, and that might positively affect community life.

HUMAN TRAFFICKING OF IMMIGRANTS TO THE UNITED STATES, COMPARED TO THAT IN CHINA

I have been perusing the “CIA World Factbook” online …

Link: “World Factbook,” by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) … https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/ ..

… and have found it full of information pertinent to forestalling social unrest in California. For instance, from my reading, it seems to me that the human trafficking of immigrants to China from North Korea in our lifetime is, in some ways, analogous to the human trafficking of immigrants to the United States from Mexico.

How China Deals with an Influx of Minimally Employable People from North Korea

Apparently, there are masses of people in North Korea, whom the government forces into forced labor in China …

“… North Korea does not fully comply with minimum standards for the elimination of [human] trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; the government continued to participate in human trafficking through its use of domestic forced labor camps and the provision of forced labor to foreign governments through bilateral contracts; officials did not demonstrate any efforts to address human trafficking through prosecution, protection, or prevention measures; no known investigations, prosecutions, or convictions of trafficking offenders or officials complicit in trafficking-related offenses were conducted; the government also made no efforts to identify or protect trafficking victims and did not permit NGOs to assist victims (2015) …” –from Link: “CIA World Factbook, North Korea,” in the section: Transnational Issues … Subheading: Trafficking in personshttps://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/geos/kn.html … public domain

Korean people also may flee to China of their own free will so as to escape starvation …

“… risking arrest, imprisonment, and deportation, tens of thousands of North Koreans cross into China to escape famine, economic privation, and political oppression … –from Link: “CIA World Factbook, North Korea,” in the section: Transnational Issues … subheading: Disputes – International https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/geos/kn.html … public domain

Those types of labor available to trafficked peoples sometimes may be beneath the level of misery that is acceptable here in the United States …

Link: “Trafficking in Persons Report June 2017,” by United States of America Department of State … https://www.hsdl.org/?view&did=801874This is a pdf download.

It might be prostitution. It might be illegal activities such as theft. It might be begging. They might be held by gangs that are ‘beneath the law’ and forced to be members of those gangs. This, to me, is unacceptable.

How the United States Deals with an Influx of Minimally Employable People from Mexico

The situation with immigrants from North Korean to China is analogous, in some regards, to the situation with immigrants from Mexico to the United States. Immigrants from Mexico are not forced by the United States government into inhumane kinds of labor, but they may find themselves in those kinds of situations … living In dug-out caves in the Earth, for instance. And doing seasonal, migrant labor. Or young women or children may find themselves forced into lives of prostitution by pimps.

One thing we might look at, going forward, is how job training might be offered new immigrants, here in the United States, so as to broaden the scope of job opportunities for which they are eligible. This type of job training is doubly beneficial: It helps raise the living standard of immigrants; and it helps lessen the spiritual burden of human trafficking in the United States and uplift our nation through good works in our community.

The philanthropy we offer those caught in the throes of human trafficking is a kindness we offer our children as well, for they will look forward to a better educated community through whose informed choices may be sculpted a brighter tomorrow for all America.

CONCLUSION

In conclusion, I feel that Los Angeles in particular, due to such stressors as homelessness and released felons, faces the spectre of social unrest at present. What to do? I feel we must look at what other countries do when faced with these stressors. We must not turn away from innovative solutions simply because we feel they are beneath us, as Americans.

I feel it is because we feel this: that the lesser good we are able to provide the homeless and released felons is beneath us, and unworthy of them, that we have found ourselves for ten years to be in stalemate as a city.

We are unable to provide the level of benefits and care that has been, with hopeful optimism, voted into California law. Massive problems lie before us, and have done so for 10 years now. California is a Sanctuary State for those fleeing from downright extermination in the crueler states of our great Union.

Though we are that to many, we have not the funds to help those seeking sanctuary in the manner afforded the homeless, the helpless, those seeking shelter, food, and work in days of old.

Here in Los Angeles we must make bold to provide what we may to those who have nothing at all. Though it be against the laws of our nation, and against those of our State, we must do what we can. We must offer what we may. We must open our hearts, still our doubts, and come up with sensible, novel solutions to the new problems that lie before us.

In love, light and joy,
I Am of the Stars

Video: “Everyone In–Supportive Housing Across L.A.,” by Everyone In LA, 8 March 2018 …  https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=22&v=QnZWabk8mO0 ..

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Ought the United States, like North Korea, Have Forced Labor? . by Alice B. Clagett

Published on 21 May 2019

Image: “Who doesn’t work doesn’t eat” … Uzbek, Tashkent, 1920 (Mardjani Foundation), author unknown, 1920, public domain.

Image: “Who doesn’t work doesn’t eat” … Uzbek, Tashkent, 1920 (Mardjani Foundation), author unknown, 1920, public domain.

  • HOW NORTH KOREA DEALS WITH INCURABLE POVERTY AND STARVATION
  • FORCED LABOR IN NORTH KOREA AS A BARTER SUBSTITUTE FOR THE COINED TAX SYSTEM
  • HOW THE UNITED STATES EMPLOYS FORCED LABOR IN OTHER GUISE
    • Community Service in Lieu of Prison Time
    • Prison ‘Work Release’ Programs
  • ADVANTAGES OF OFFERING FELONS RURAL AND WILDERNESS WORK CAMP OPPORTUNITIES
    • Work Camps as Work Ethic Education
    • On Offering Habitual Offenders ‘Rough and Tumble’ Jobs Far From Urban Centers
  • CONCLUSION

Dear Ones,

Here in the United States, we are faced with lack of funds to deal with big problems of homelessness, unemployment, underemployment, and poverty-line living. For some years now, these difficult problems have been before us, and felicitous solutions, to date, do not avail.

Why is it that we have not found viable, long-term solutions to these problems? I feel it is because we have not felt desperate enough, or perhaps innovative enough, to look outside the envelope, and see what other nations that have been facing similar problems have come up with in terms of solutions.

I took a look at the United States Central Intelligence Agency’s “World Factbook,” hoping to come up with some off-the-wall offerings, and came up with the example of the dire poverty faced by North Korea, and its institution of Forced Labor for public projects. Here is part of what I found out …

HOW NORTH KOREA DEALS WITH INCURABLE POVERTY AND STARVATION

As I see it, in North Korea, the problem is intractable, long-term, incurable poverty. I have for you this quotation from the “CIA World Factbook,” with regard to the grim facts of the North Korean economy …

“North Korea, one of the world’s most centrally directed and least open economies, faces chronic economic problems. Industrial capital stock is nearly beyond repair as a result of years of underinvestment, shortages of spare parts, and poor maintenance. Large-scale military spending and development of its ballistic missile and nuclear program severely draws off resources needed for investment and civilian consumption. Industrial and power outputs have stagnated for years at a fraction of pre-1990 levels. Frequent weather-related crop failures aggravated chronic food shortages caused by on-going systemic problems, including a lack of arable land, collective farming practices, poor soil quality, insufficient fertilization, and persistent shortages of tractors and fuel.

“The mid 1990s through mid 2000s were marked by severe famine and widespread starvation. Significant food aid was provided by the international community through 2009. Since that time, food assistance has declined significantly. In the last few years, domestic corn and rice production has improved, although domestic production does not fully satisfy demand. A large portion of the population continues to suffer from prolonged malnutrition and poor living conditions. Since 2002, the government has allowed semi-private markets to begin selling a wider range of goods, allowing North Koreans to partially make up for diminished public distribution system rations. It also implemented changes in the management process of communal farms in an effort to boost agricultural output …” – from LInk: “CIA World Factbook,  North Korea” … https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/geos/kn.html … public domain.

FORCED LABOR IN NORTH KOREA AS A BARTER SUBSTITUTE FOR THE COINED TAX SYSTEM

Rather than asking people, who have nothing, for taxes, instead North Korea is conscripting people into forced labor situations for nothing … for free … to help with government projects …

… North Korea is a source country for men, women, and children who are subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; many North Korean workers recruited to work abroad under bilateral contracts with foreign governments, most often Russia and China, are subjected to forced labor and do not have a choice in the work the government assigns them, are not free to change jobs, and face government reprisals if they try to escape or complain to outsiders; tens of thousands of North Koreans, including children, held in prison camps are subjected to forced labor, including logging, mining, and farming; many North Korean women and girls, lured by promises of food, jobs, and freedom, have migrated to China illegally to escape poor social and economic conditions only to be forced into prostitution, domestic service, or agricultural work through forced marriages.” – from Link: “CIA World Factbook, North Korea,” in the section: Transnational Issues … Subheading: Trafficking in persons … https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook/geos/kn.html … public domain.

To some degree, the ‘forcing of labor’ in North Korea, I feel in some instances may be a substitute for the coined tax system … It is more like a ‘barter’ tax, you know? We might look at this practice and offhandedly think of it as a completely evil thing, whereas, in fact, it may be a necessary thing there, so as to keep the economy alive, in a situation where everyone faces starvation whenever (as is often the case) weather conditions are not good.

Image: “A farmer inspects his ruined crops in famine-plagued South Hwanghae province, where a man is said to have been executed recently after being reported for eating his two children,” Damir SagolJ, Reuters, http://assets.nydailynews.com/polopoly_fs/1.1250764.1359505983!/img/httpImage/image.jpg_gen/derivatives/article_1200/article-north-korea-hunger.jpg ..

HOW THE UNITED STATES EMPLOYS FORCED LABOR IN OTHER GUISE

I feel that we have various forms of forced labor here in the United States … forced labor that may be less injurious to human rights, but nevertheless forced labor. It is just that we cushion it with other terms … more aesthetic terms … according to our ideas of how things ought to be. Here are two kinds of ‘forced labor’ that we look favorably upon in the United States …

Community Service in Lieu of Prison Time

For instance, North Korea has forced labor part of the year … during which the people in the towns have to work for the government for free or for almost nothing … That has analogies to community service at, say, $40 a day, in lieu of prison time for Coloradans.

Link: “Alternatives in Imposition of Sentence in Colorado CRS 18-1.3-104,” by Colorado Legal Defense Group … https://www.shouselaw.com/colorado/CO_alternative_sentences.html ..

Prison ‘Work Release’ Programs

Then, I noticed in Mendocino County, California, there are various prison ‘work release’ programs … home detention, work release, and work furlough …

Link: Mendocino County Sheriff’s Office: Corrections,” http://www.mendocinosheriff.com/corrections/workrelease.html ..

ADVANTAGES OF OFFERING FELONS RURAL AND WILDERNESS WORK CAMP OPPORTUNITIES

Work Camps as Work Ethic Education

I recall that, in Russia and China, they think of forced labor as a way of educating people with regard to the work ethic … inculcating a notion of being productive members of society. And we might consider it like that too.

If we cannot house the felons in urban prisons, we could expand our programs to house them in work camps in rural or wilderness areas. These work camps might be viewed as offering education in the work ethic, and in that way, helping felons to qualify for good jobs after their release.

On Offering Habitual Offenders ‘Rough and Tumble’ Jobs Far From Urban Centers

In addition to providing work ethic education, work camp job experience would likely provide improved physical conditioning. This might help released felons find ‘rough and tumble’ jobs far from urban centers, occupations such as lumberjacking, or tramp steamer crew, for instance. Maybe, work in the mines, or in the deserts, or on oil rigs. There might be a segment of felons to whom rough and tumble jobs appeal; and this appeal might decrease recidivism.

There may be felons with many offenses, and whom we are unable to keep in prison. Yet if they are released, they might look for criminal work, and not wish to integrate into the general community. In some cases, they might fall into the category ‘antisocial personalities’. In such instances, it might be good if they found work away from the general population.

If California is unable to house multiple offenders, we might also consider offering those serving time the option to become a free person, or a semi-free person, in an occupation that is far from the general public … where the released prisoners cannot hurt the general public.

CONCLUSION

My thought as to whether forced labor might successfully be employed in the United States is this: Considering the American way of life, forced labor could never succeed here if it ruthlessly trammels human rights. I do feel, on the other hand, that the choice of modified versions of forced labor … as amongst the prison populations, or for released felons, or for the indigent … might be offered as an alternative, a free will choice, that might prove appealing, were its benefits to be properly laid out, and then offered by way of explanation to those undertaking it.

In love, light and joy,
I Am of the Stars

See also … Link: “Notes on Forestalling Social Unrest in California,” by Alice B. Clagett, written on 12 April 2018; published on 6 December 2019 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-8xT ..

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Except where otherwise noted, “Awakening with Planet Earth” by Alice B. Clagett … https://awakeningwithplanetearth.com … is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License (CC BY-SA 4.0) … https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/ ..

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The Great Depression, Homelessness Today, and Criminal Justice Reform in America . by Alice B. Clagett *

Filmed on 1 March 2016; published on 12 March 2016
Written in Santa Clarita, California, on returning from a trip up the California Central Valley in springtime.
Previous title: The Great Depression, Homelessness Today, and Criminal Justice Reform

  • VIDEO BY ALICE
  • SUMMARY OF THE VIDEO
    • My Mother’s Story About Employment of the Homeless for Public Works in the Great Depression
    • A Recent News Story about a Homeless Encampment
    • On Restorative Justice and Work Ethic Education of Prisoners
  • HOW SAN FRANCISCO IS DEALING WITH ITS 6,000 HOMELESS
  • THE SHANTYTOWNS OR ‘HOOVERVILLES’ OF THE GREAT DEPRESSION
  • THE NEW DEAL AND PUBLIC WORKS TO EMPLOY THE UNEMPLOYED
  • FOOTNOTES

Dear Ones,

A video about the homeless encampments of the Great Depression, the situation in America today, and the solutions implemented by President Theodore Roosevelt long ago. What answers to this problem might be usefully considered today? Also, American work furlough programs as the wave of the future for prisoners convicted of less notably violent crimes.

There is a lightly edited Summary after the video. Then there are additional sections that supplement the topic of the video.

VIDEO BY ALICE

SUMMARY OF THE VIDEO

Hello, Dear Ones, It’s Alice. I Am of the Stars.

I thought I would tell you a story that my mom told me, in relation to a newspaper story that I saw the other day. The two are related, but they are miles apart in terms of years and generations …

My Mother’s Story About Employment of the Homeless for Public Works in the Great Depression

When I was very young, my mother told me the story of the Great Depression. That was the time she lived through before I was born. In the time of the Great Depression, there was no work to be had. There were a number of reasons why many men could not find work at all. And so, she said, they left their homes and their families, in hopes of finding work elsewhere. And they roamed around and lived under bridge abutments, off the sides of roads, in crude encampments of tent dwellings … and looked for work from there, in hopes that they could get money to support their families.

These tent villages were huge sometimes; and there was some lawlessness there …  sometimes fighting and brawling and alcohol drinking, and maybe even occasionally murders … and of course there was a problem with sanitation, and how they might find enough food to eat; and whether their tents would hold up in a rainstorm, whether they could be warm in the snow, and so forth.

These were desperate men. And the people in the towns, who lived near these homeless encampments, would come to the tent villages, and there would be huge fights and killings and drivings off of people, and so forth.

Then finally it came to the attention of the government, and they tried to think of a solution to this problem. One of the things they came up with, was the idea of hiring these people to do public works projects all over the United States … and often in areas that were rural.

So they would hire them. And in that way these people would have just enough money to support their families. And the Works Progress Administration would hire them; and in that way these people would have just enough money to support their families. And they would transport them to very rural locations.

One of the ideas I have is that then they could get into no trouble; there would be no alcohol; they could get their food supplied for them; and they would be with other people who were in equal economic straits, in a place where there was really nothing to be done but very hard work … with good results too, because among these public works projects of the 1930s, many still remain today. Bridges were built all over the United States. They worked on all kinds of public projects, including roads. And they did great work, very enduring work that is still there. They built the transportation system of America.

Link: “The Living New Deal” … https://livingnewdeal.org/ ..

During a time when there was no hope, the government helped to supply them with a living for themselves and their families.

A Recent News Story about a Homeless Encampment

That is mom’s story. And so now to get to the story that I saw in the newspaper that I saw in the newspaper the other day: I saw a story about a homeless encampment in San Francisco. There wree problems that were reminiscent of the homeless encampments in the 1930s, problems with lawlessness, sanitation, the use of drugs, and so on.

Consequently the government ordered that everyone leave that area. Some people complied, and some people would not comply. At the time that I read this newspaper article, there were people who were determined to stay and express their right to be where they were.

I feel it is time for the government to consider what can be done to employ these people. For instance, there was a nurse there who had lost her work. What can be done to turn around this situation? How can these people be housed? How can they receive medical care? How can they get hope back into their lives?

It is important. This time is now. We do not want homelessness and lawlessness in our cities. But the answer is not violence. The answer is not government edicts to move on. The answer is some constructive thing that can help them to achieve whatever goals they may have that are positively oriented towards society.

I hope this will be considered in the near future, for America. We thought of it long ago. This is just like a redux; it is a return to something to help them maintain their ideal of the American dream, just as we who are homed hope to maintain that ideal.

On Restorative Justice and Work Ethic Education of Prisoners

There is one more thing that I found out during my recent road trip north through California. I was in Ukiah, the county seat of Mendocino County, where there was a work realignment program that allowed all but violent criminals to work at jobs like emptying trash receptacles and road work, and so forth, and then just be in prison at night.

Link: “Corrections: Alternative Programs,” at Mendocino County Sheriff’s Office …  http://www.mendocinosheriff.com/corrections/workrelease.html Home Detention, Work Release, Work Furlough

I believe this was for people who had been convicted of crimes that were not notably violent. This seems to be the wave of the future for criminal justice: Not so much to house people in hopeless circumstances, where they simply scheme to get back at society for what has been done to them, but instead to allow them a chance to work towards a change in their attitude … a chance to have jobs like other people have, and a chance to be treated more humanely, so that they can begin to learn the true rules of society. I say this because I feel it likely that people who operate from the perspective of the criminal mind have not been granted that kind of view of the way that society functions, that most people get. So this is a chance to do that.

You all take care. Love you lots. Bye bye.

Photos by Alice

Image: “Central California 1,” by Alice B. Clagett, 1 March 2016, CC BY-SA 4.0

Image: “Central California 1,” by Alice B. Clagett, 1 March 2016, CC BY-SA 4.0

Image: “Central California 2,” by Alice B. Clagett, 1 March 2016, CC BY-SA 4.0

Image: “Central California 2,” by Alice B. Clagett, 1 March 2016, CC BY-SA 4.0

Image: “Central California 3,” by Alice B. Clagett, 1 March 2016, CC BY-SA 4.0

Image: “Central California 3,” by Alice B. Clagett, 1 March 2016, CC BY-SA 4.0

[This is the end of the video. The following are supplemental sections …]

HOW SAN FRANCISCO IS DEALING WITH ITS 6,000 HOMELESS

I recently perused an article that mentioned there are now 6,000 homeless in San Francisco …

LInk: “San Francisco Wants Homeless to Leave Tent Camp, But Some Vow to Fight,” by Thomas Fuller, 26 February 2016 … http://www.nytimes.com/2016/02/27/us/san-francisco-wants-homeless-to-leave-tent-camp-but-some-vow-to-fight.html?_r=0 ..

San Francisco’s response to this problem was to evacuate a tent city on Division Street, citing health problems. Of course, the larger problem is: What to do about the homeless all across America.

THE SHANTYTOWNS OR ‘HOOVERVILLES’ OF THE GREAT DEPRESSION

This Wikipedia article describes the homeless encampments of the Great Depression …

LInk: “Hooverville” … https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hooverville ..

In the early 1930s, millions were homeless. Those living on the streets numbered in the hundreds of thousands.

In bitter derision of then-President Herbert Hoover, homeless shantytowns were termed ‘Hoovervilles’.  Homeless families were camped out in New York’s Central Park. There were eight Hoovervilles in Seattle. There was a very large Hooverville in St. Louis as well, with 4 districts and its own mayor.

“The Bonus Army” was a group of World War I veterans who established a Hooverville in the District of Columbia. At its peak, this shantytown numbered 15,000 veterans seeking their benefits. Apparently, there was much violence surrounding this encampment. Here is a very famous photo of veterans fighting with law enforcement …

Bonus_marchers_05510_2004_001_a

Image: “Photograph of Bonus Marchers,” Signal Corps Photographer, 1932, in Wikimedia Commons … public domain.

Image: “Photograph of Bonus Marchers,” Signal Corps Photographer, 1932, in Wikimedia Commons … public domain.

The Bonus Army shantytown was finally burned down …

Evictbonusarmy

Image: “Shacks, Put Up by the Bonus Army on the Anacostia Flats, Washington, D.C., Burning After the Battle with the Military. The Capitol in the Background,” Signal Corps Photographer, 1932, in Wikimedia Commons … public domain.

Image: “Shacks, Put Up by the Bonus Army on the Anacostia Flats, Washington, D.C., Burning After the Battle with the Military. The Capitol in the Background,” Signal Corps Photographer, 1932, in Wikimedia Commons … public domain.

lossy-page1-732px-Unemployed_men_queued_outside_a_depression_soup_kitchen_opened_in_Chicago_by_Al_Capone,_02-1931_-_NARA_-_541927.tif

Image: “Unemployed Men Queued Outside a Depression Soup Kitchen Opened in Chicago by Al Capone, 02/1931,” U.S. Information Agency, in Wikimedia Commons … public domain.

Image: “Unemployed Men Queued Outside a Depression Soup Kitchen Opened in Chicago by Al Capone, 02/1931,” U.S. Information Agency, in Wikimedia Commons … public domain.

It looks like a similar situation existed in Houston in the 1930s …

Huts_and_unemployed_in_West_Houston_and_Mercer_St_by_Berenice_Abbott_in_Manhattan_in_1935

Image: “Huts and Unemployed, West Houston and Mercer St., Manhattan,” Image ID: 482853,” by Berenice Abbott, 25 October 1935, in Wikimedia Commons … public domain.

Image: “Huts and Unemployed, West Houston and Mercer St., Manhattan,” Image ID: 482853,” by Berenice Abbott, 25 October 1935, in Wikimedia Commons … public domain.

35bennettbuggy

Image: “‘A Bennett Buggy’: An Automobile Powered by Horses Because Its Owner Couldn’t Afford Gas,” University of Saskatchewan Archives, 1935, in Wikimedia Commons … public domain.

Image: “‘A Bennett Buggy’: An Automobile Powered by Horses Because Its Owner Couldn’t Afford Gas,” University of Saskatchewan Archives, 1935, in Wikimedia Commons … public domain.

Here are more photos from the Hooverville era …

Link: “Hoovervilles” … https://carolyngreatdepression.weebly.com/hoovervilles.html ..

THE NEW DEAL AND PUBLIC WORKS TO EMPLOY THE UNEMPLOYED

The New Deal was President Theodore Roosevelt’s answer to the Great Depression. See …

LInk: “New Deal,” in Wikipedia … https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Deal#Public_works ..

President Roosevelt’s Public Works program, mentioned in the video and in the Wikipedia article, put many homeless men to work building bridges, dams, courthouses, post offices, and roads. It might be good to have such a government program today to employ the homeless and help build a better America.

1CWA_6000_men

Image: “6,000 Men and a Scenic Boulevard,” Civil Works Administration, San Francisco, CA, ca. 1934, in Wikimedia Commons … public domain.

Image: “6,000 Men and a Scenic Boulevard,” Civil Works Administration, San Francisco, CA, ca. 1934, in Wikimedia Commons … public domain.

In love, light and joy,
I Am of the Stars

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ascension, homelessness, employment, Hooverville, Great Depression, New Deal, Theodore Roosevelt, Herbert Hoover, criminal justice, work furlough, prison reform, American Dream, shantytowns, economics, current affairs, community health, history, sanitation, sustainable living, alternative housing, public works, stories, stories by Alice, law enforcement, lawlessness, drug use, American dream, felon rehabilitation, restorative justice, politics, United States,