Tag Archives: safe sex

Does ‘Safe Sex’ Prevent HIV / AIDS Transmission? . by Alice B. Clagett

Written and published on 14 June 2018

  • SAFE SURGERY: RISK OF GLOVE PERFORATION DURING SURGERY
    • Self-Assessment and Segregation of HIV-Infected Surgeons to HIV-Infected Patient Groups
  • SAFE INCARCERATION: MITIGATING HIV / AIDS ‘BLOOMS’ IN PENAL INSTITUTIONS
  • COMPARISON OF SURGICAL GLOVE PERFORATION STATISTICS TO STATISTICS ON CONDOM BREAKAGE
  • RISK MITIGATION THROUGH DOUBLE BAGGING
    • Glove Perforation Risk Mitigation by Double Bagging During Surgery
    • Risk Mitigation by Double Bagging Condoms During Sexual Intercourse
  • THE IMPORTANCE OF SLOWING DOWN THE COURSE OF A PANDEMIC
    • Uninfected Children Can Help Strengthen the Workforce of the Next Five Decades
    • Are HIV-Positive Newborns Who Are Resistant to HIV Being Born Worldwide?
    • Insurance Availability of Voluntary Annual HIV Testing in the United States
    • Nurturing HIV-Positive Newborns Who Are Resistant to HIV Will Strengthen Our Gene Pool
  •  ATTENUATION: THE NORMAL COURSE OF A PANDEMIC
    • Mortality Rate During the 1918 Flu Pandemic, Compared to the 2009 Swine Flu Pandemic
    • Pandemics: A More Benign Infecting Agent Over Time? Or a Stronger Human Gene Pool?
  • MORE INFORMATION

Dear Ones,

SAFE SURGERY: RISK OF GLOVE PERFORATION DURING SURGERY

A while ago I did a blog on the effectiveness of surgical gloving in preventing blood taint during surgeries …

Link: “Compendium: Surgical Risk, HIV / AIDS, Hepatitis, and Hard Drugs,” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 17 October 2016; updated on 6 July 2017 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-6gY ..

Here is the paper that was reviewed in the blog …

Link: “Occult Glove Perforation during Ophthalmic Surgery,” by Leonard Apt, MD, and (by invitation) Kevin M. Miller, MD, Tr. Am. Ophth. Soc., Vol. LXXXX, 1992 … http://europepmc.org/backend/ptpmcrender.fcgi?accid=PMC1298427&blobtype=pdf ..

In the paper, if I understand it correctly, Drs. Apt and Miller found a 15.0% incidence of surgically induced glove perforations over seven months.

In other words, if there is a 15% chance that a doctor’s surgical gloves might be perforated in 7 months, then there is a 15% chance of blood tainting during a medical procedure that involves exposure to a patient’s blood while it is in his or her body. According to the laws of probability, as I understand it, that would be a 15% chance of virus transmission with each surgery.

Self-Assessment and Segregation of HIV-Infected Surgeons to HIV-Infected Patient Groups

From this I deduced the possible danger to doctors of their being infected with HIV or hepatitis while they were wearing surgical gloves while doing operations. This then, might be a source point for HIV / AIDS ‘blooms’ as the pandemic progresses, unless the medical self-assesses and limits surgeries by infected surgeons to infected patient groups.

SAFE INCARCERATION: MITIGATING HIV / AIDS ‘BLOOMS’ IN PENAL INSTITUTIONS

As an aside, I feel that the incidence of HIV / AIDS ‘blooms’ in penal institutions … correctional facilities or prison … might be mitigated in a similar manner; that is, if correctional institutions self-assess and limit policing by infected correctional officers to infected groups of prisoners. The possibility of a correctional facility HIV / AIDS ‘bloom’ has to do with the practice of rape in these facilities, whether among prisoners, or by correctional facility officers. Prison rape is a practice just now beginning to be brought to light and figured into the pandemic equation.

COMPARISON OF SURGICAL GLOVE PERFORATION STATISTICS TO STATISTICS ON CONDOM BREAKAGE

To return to the article by Drs. Apt and Miller: That article got me thinking about how that finding might apply to the wearing of condoms during sexual intercourse. I think that there’s some congruence there.

Other factors being equal, might it be that wearing a condom during the act of sex might incur a 15% chance of HIV, hepatitis, or other virus transmission with every act of sexual intercourse? I’ve read an article by Planned Parenthood that supports this …

Link: “What are the chances of getting pregnant with a condom?,” by Emily@Planned Parenthood, 18 December 2017 … https://www.plannedparenthood.org/learn/teens/ask-experts/what-are-the-chances-of-getting-pregnant-with-a-condom ..

According to the article, among heterosexual couples where the man uses a condom during sexual intercourse, 18 in 100 of the women will become pregnant each year.

Among heterosexual couples where the woman uses a female condom, 21 in 100 women yearly will become pregnant.

Thus there is an 18% or 21% ‘ineffectiveness’ rate through condom use amongst heterosexual couples yearly. This figure is reasonably close to the 15% ‘ineffectiveness’ factor found by Drs. Apt and Miller for surgical glove protection.

Thus, we might extrapolate that a 15% to 21% annual effectiveness rate for prevention of STD virus transmission might be attained by using condoms, whether M2F, M2M, or F2F.

In other words, 15% to 21% of people using condoms for ‘safe sex’ might be anticipated to contract HIV or hepatitis annually, if their partner is infected.

RISK MITIGATION THROUGH DOUBLE BAGGING

Glove Perforation Risk Mitigation by Double Bagging During Surgery

The study by Drs. Apt and Miller discussed at some length the advantages of wearing two pairs of surgical gloves during surgery … of ‘double gloving’. Their retroactive findings were interesting, but inconclusive. One of the factors that needed to be looked at in future studies was correlation of location of punctures in inner and outer gloves worn during surgery. Were these to correlate … in other words, in cases of perforation of both gloves at one location … then, most likely, the risk of viral transmission, in cases where either the surgeon or the patient is infected, would be greater.

Then, in surgical cases, much might depend on the type of surgery being performed. For instance, hip arthroplasties … that is, total hip replacement surgeries … there is rough work involved. These surgeries must be done by physically strong surgeons. Manipulation of the joints may, I feel, result in greater likelihood of glove puncture. That is just my thought on it, without my doing any research on it. So it seemed to me that studies ought to be planned regarding correlation of location of punctures in inner and outer gloves worn during these types of surgery.

Risk Mitigation by Double Bagging Condoms During Sexual Intercourse

Wikipedia states that ‘double bagging’ … using two condoms instead of one … offers greater protection …

“‘Double bagging’, using two condoms at once, is often believed to cause a higher rate of failure due to the friction of rubber on rubber. This claim is not supported by research. The limited studies that have been done found that the simultaneous use of multiple condoms decreases the risk of condom breakage.” –from Link: “Condom,” in Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Condom … CC BY-SA 3.0

Planned Parenthood has more to say on this …

Link: “Fact Sheet: The Truth about Condoms,” by Planned Parenthood, July 2011 …  https://www.plannedparenthood.org/files/9313/9611/6384/truth_about_condoms.pdf ..

Under the subheading “Double Bagging,” they mention that three studies indicate double bagging … wearing two condoms … is effective in decreasing the risk of condoms breaking. One of the studies stated that double bagging decreased the risk of HIV transmission from 1.8% to only 0.2%. The study in question was …

Citation: “Multiple Condom Use and Decreased Condom Breakage and Shippage in Thailand,” by Rugpao, Sugwal, et al., February 1997, in Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
and Human Retrovirology,14(2), 169–173.

That would mean that single bagging results in a 98.2% effectiveness (that is 100% less 1.8%), and that double bagging results in 99.8% effectiveness (that is, 100% less 0.2%), as to the risks of condom breakage during sexual intercourse.

What do these percentages mean, in terms of the probability of HIV transmission? If the risk of condom breakage decreases from 1.8% to 0.2% with double bagging, then the risk, with double bagging, is only 10% as great as with single bagging.

Planned Parenthood translates 98% effectiveness as meaning, in a practical context, that 18% of heterosexual women using condoms will become pregnant each year. Were this risk to be 10% as great, then, presumably, only 2 women in 100 would become pregnant annually.

This pregnancy rate presumably correlates to condom breakage or slippage; thus the statistics might also apply to transmission of HIV and hepatitis. What we have then, is a potentially very significant mitigation of the rate of transmission of HIV and hepatitis through double bagging during sexual intercourse.

THE IMPORTANCE OF SLOWING DOWN THE COURSE OF A PANDEMIC

Slowing down the course of the HIV pandemic is important, both in terms of mitigation of human suffering, and also in terms of stabilization of the work force, and of available manpower, so as to keep our economy as strong and healthy as that of other nations, all of which are being impacted by the HIV / AIDS pandemic.

Uninfected Children Can Help Strengthen the Workforce of the Next Five Decades

The more we are able to slow down the course of the pandemic, worldwide, the greater will be the numbers of uninfected children born to the upcoming generation. These children, along with people now adults and uninfected, will strengthen our workforce during the next five decades.

Are HIV-Positive Newborns Who Are Resistant to HIV Being Born Worldwide?

Slowing down the course of the pandemic will also allow the human gene pool a ‘leg up’ in the natural course of selecting for a population that is resistant to HIV. More and more babies are being born already infected with HIV. The scant literature on mortality rates leans toward these babies not surviving to adulthood; but the truth is, data on this topic are woefully inadequate, as yet.

For instance, it is possible that babies are being born in the world today, who have the HIV infection. But because they appear to be perfectly normal, no one knows that they carry HIV. This might be the case, for instance, in Africa, where health care resources are less available.

Insurance Availability of Voluntary Annual HIV Testing in the United States

It might also be the case here in the United States, where annual HIV testing … though paid for by Medicare and other government programs … is seldom taken advantage of. This is most likely due, I feel, to backwardness of physician guidelines regarding the HIV pandemic. That would be easy to fix, though, by updating physicians on the advisability of annual HIV testing, and of testing newborns for HIV.

Nurturing HIV-Positive Newborns Who Are Resistant to HIV Will Strengthen Our Gene Pool

Thus it is possible that children are being born, here in the United States, and also worldwide, who are resistant to the HIV virus; who are able to lead healthy lives, and to bear healthy children. On this very likely possibility, it would be wholly inadvisable to react to the birth of HIV-positive children in our hospitals, with a policy of euthanasia. This type of policy would place our nation at a disadvantage, as regards other nations, in birthing a generation of children who have HIV, but are naturally resistant to the virus.

Putting the breaks on the rate of the pandemic … through double bagging, through voluntary annual testing and voluntary testing of newborns, and also through education on the risks and rewards of various sexual lifestyle choices … will allow the United States time and resources to nurture HIV-positive newborns, rather than making the short-sighted choice to euthanize them as a cost-saving measure.

These will be children who will be able to bear viable children, despite the infection, in years to come. Thus, slowing down the course of the pandemic will allow our human gene pool a ‘leg up’ in the natural course of selecting for a population that is resistant to HIV.

ATTENUATION: THE NORMAL COURSE OF A PANDEMIC

Mortality Rate During the 1918 Flu Pandemic, Compared to the 2009 Swine Flu Pandemic

We can expect that the HIV of future generations will be much different from the HIV of today. Such was the case with the influenza epidemic of the early 1900s … In the 1900s, the flu was very deadly, striking down one in every 10 to 20 people …

“The global mortality rate from the 1918/1919 pandemic is not known, but an estimated 10% to 20% of those who were infected died. With about a third of the world population infected, this case-fatality ratio means 3% to 6% of the entire global population died.” –from Link: “1918 Flu Pandemic,” in Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1918_flu_pandemic … CC BY 3.0

Yet today, many people successfully survive infection with influenza. For instance, in the 2009-2010 Swine flu … H1N1 … pandemic, 1 in 5 people were infected, but the mortality rate was only 0.2% …

Link: “Swine flu infected 1 in 5, death rate low, study shows,” by Kate Kelland, 25 January 2013 … https://www.reuters.com/article/us-flu-h1n1-pandemic/swine-flu-infected-1-in-5-death-rate-low-study-shows-idUSBRE90O0T720130125 ..

Pandemics: A More Benign Infecting Agent Over Time? Or a Stronger Human Gene Pool?

As I understand it, this is the normal progress of a pandemic: Those who are genetically most susceptible to the infecting agent are likely to pass on, in either the first or the second generation of the pandemic. Others, with genes more capable of withstanding the impact of the infecting agent, survive. The result, over time, is a gene pool more capable of resisting the impact of the infecting agent.

From our human standpoint, over time, it appears that the infecting agent has become more benign. But in fact, it is our human gene pool that has become more viable.

This is the normal course of pandemics in human populations. Were we to look at the course of pandemics in domestic animal populations, we would most likely find correlation.

In love, light and joy,
I Am of the Stars

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MORE INFORMATION

Link: “Compendium: Surgical Risk, HIV / AIDS, Hepatitis, and Hard Drugs,” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 17 October 2016; updated on 6 July 2017 …  https://wp.me/p2Rkym-6gY ..

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Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
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HIV, HIV pandemic, AIDS, AIDS pandemic, economic, work force, manpower, safe surgery, safe sex, surgical glove perforation, safe incarceration, HIV blooms, AIDS blooms, penal institutions, correctional facilities, prisons, condom breakage, double bagging, HIV-positive newborns, HIV-resistant children, 1918 Flu pandemic, 1918 influenza pandemic, 2009 swine flu pandemic, H1N1 pandemic, pandemic attenuation, viral attenuation, gene pool, viable gene pool, genetic, correctional system, Economics, workforce,

Proposition 60: The Pornography Industry and the Common Good . by Alice B. Clagett

Published on 7 November 2016

  • THE QUESTION OF SAFE SEX FOR THE PORNOGRAPHY INDUSTRY
  • SEX WORKERS AND SOCIETAL EXPECTATIONS
  • BRINGING SEX TABOOS TO THE LIGHT OF CONSCIOUS AWARENESS
  • ON DEALING WITH THE PRACTICAL ISSUE OF SEX WORK, INSTEAD OF PROJECTING BLAME
  • DISEMPOWERMENT OF SEX WORKERS
  • SEX WORKER SAFETY
  • THE FLOW-THROUGH EFFECT: SEX WORKER SAFETY AND THE COMMON GOOD
    • Clair Stories about Women Having Sex with Fitness Instructors
    • Clair Stories about Children Having Sex with Illegal Drug Dealers
    • Pornography as Sex Education for Young Adults
    • Clair Stories about Sex Workers and Law Enforcement
    • Suppression of Data on HIV Infection
    • Summary
  • CONCLUSIONS REGARDING THE ISSUE OF REQUIRING SAFE SEX FOR ACTORS IN THE PORNOGRAPHY INDUSTRY

Dear Ones,

I am looking over the propositions on the California ballot today, and have come to some interesting realizations regarding ways to solve the issues we Americans face as a nation today.

THE QUESTION OF SAFE SEX FOR THE PORNOGRAPHY INDUSTRY

In California, Proposition 60 has been put forth, regarding requiring employers to have actors in pornography films use condoms, and to provide vaccines and medical checkups. [This proposition on the 8 November 2016 ballot failed to pass.] This is an issue sidestepped by the California League of Women Voters, whose opinions I value because they reflect my concerns for children’s and women’s rights. So I took a closer look …

SEX WORKERS AND SOCIETAL EXPECTATIONS

There are issues around occupations that do not conform to societal expectations, such as the sex worker industry. The issues are: Should Americans be allowed to view pornography, or is this practice unethical? Ought punitive measures be in place regarding pornography? If so, what punitive measures? For instance, why not just let all the sex workers die of AIDS? That would serve them right, would it not?

These are not thoughts of our conscious minds. Rather, they are upwellings of negative emotion from our subconscious minds.

Many people have learned, in early childhood, that sexual expression needs to be corralled and closeted … in a bedroom, for example. That the sex act needs to be performed quietly, so that no one can hear. That only certain ways of expressing sexuality are ok; others (the list is long) are not ok. In the case of women, ‘that a lady need not express herself through orgasm’. The notion that children may not feel sexual till they reach 16, or 18 (when in fact, children begin to learn about sexuality, and to express it, in very early childhood).

These sexual taboos, which vary from family to family, and from culture to culture, are the source of Soul wounding in early childhood, which imbalances the second chakra and interferes with the function of the heart chakra.

And so, when we consider the issue of sex workers and condoms, we are really dipping into the mire of societal taboos regarding sexuality, and not just dealing with a straightforward issue of what might be good for disempowered sex workers.

BRINGING SEX TABOOS TO THE LIGHT OF CONSCIOUS AWARENESS

Up until recently,  the savvy rhetorician could manipulate societal taboos to win kudos for personal gain … In this way, laws have been passed in America that reinforce early childhood Soul wounding and countermand the common good.

This is a new day on New Earth, and all of us are now able to arrive at better solutions to societal issues. This is because the common person … you and I … are rising to an understanding of the subconscious mind. We can move beyond these subconscious barriers, and on to new, more positive solutions to social issues.

ON DEALING WITH THE PRACTICAL ISSUE OF SEX WORK, INSTEAD OF PROJECTING BLAME

In the case of condoms for sex workers, the subconscious negative burden of America is then notion aforementioned: Why not let them all die of AIDS?

OK, let’s look at that. While the sex worker occupation is socially unacceptable, it is also avidly sought after by both men and women. This has been the case down through history; there were merchants, women, slaves, and ‘canabae’ (1) who were camp followers for the Roman legion, and this has been the case for armies down through history. In a civilian context, this is also true.

In past, this issue has been dealt with in a subconscious context: Our subconscious mind wants to place blame, to pass judgment, regarding this activity. For women, our own husbands and their friends are engaged in this activity. For men, our wives would call it quits were we to come out in favor of this activity, though we may personally find it an attractive prospect. What to do? The answer has been, to project the blame and judgement we feel toward our spouse onto the sex workers.

This act of projection is one of the subconscious mechanisms that are now coming to the light of Awareness. It’s becoming clear that the issues reside within the spousal relationship, between man and wife. And more specifically, they lie in the clearings of the Soul wounding of the second chakra now taking place on Earth through the incoming photonic Light. As these clearings take place, the negative onus of societal expectations rises to our conscious awareness. Thus spouses can begin to speak frankly of the issue of sex work and its utilization by the husband, or by the wife.

In the meantime, there is, for many Americans, still the negative subconscious burden in place. This may be overcome by pointing out the flow-through effect of labeling such an occupation ‘illegal’. Thus we may steer our course with an eye to the common good, rather than to that subconscious bias to which we all fall prey from time to time. Here are the issues at hand:

DISEMPOWERMENT OF SEX WORKERS

In America today, there are laws in place against sex workers. Yet laws are not enforced, as logic would propose, against those who frequent the sex trade.

  • This legal inequity is held in place by the subconscious nature of our disapproval of this occupation, and effected through the subconscious process known as ‘projection’.
  • We are using the legal system to project our negativity towards the sex worker occupation on sex workers, instead of dealing with the issues as husband-wife and parent-child issues.
  • Because of this legal inconsistency, sex workers are among the disempowered in America.

SEX WORKER SAFETY

There is a rising sentiment to protect workers in America. Workers in many occupations are protected by laws regarding worker safety. However, in the case of occupations judged by the public to be unethical, there is no safety protection.

This concept of safety includes, in the case of sex workers, the danger of disease, including eventually fatal disease, danger of physical injury by clients and by pimps, and danger to life itself, as in the case of snuff films.

THE FLOW-THROUGH EFFECT: SEX WORKER SAFETY AND THE COMMON GOOD

Sex workers know that admission of infection by HIV can be fatal; yet sex work invariably leads to infection. For the sake of life and limb, test results are falsified. This, to the sex worker, necessary precaution then puts those who utilize their services at risk of infection.

Thus the danger of disease, including eventually fatal disease, flows through to those that use the services of sex workers, and from there to their spouses, and from there onward to circle of intimate acquaintances of both spouses.

Clair Stories about Women Having Sex with Fitness Instructors

I have had a number of clair reports about M2F sex work through fitness centers, targeting older women, who divorce their husbands, marry a fitness instructor, contract HIV, and are ‘taken to the cleaners’ by the new husband.

Clair Stories about Children Having Sex with Illegal Drug Dealers

Also in the clair realm, there are reports of elementary school children trading M2Child sex for drugs; thus the children are also contracting HIV by junior high school age.

Pornography as Sex Education for Young Adults

Here is another flow-through effect involving children: Pornography films are tools by means of which our young people learn about the sex act. Use of condoms in pornography films would help our young people understand the importance of safe sex practices.

Clair Stories about Sex Workers and Law Enforcement

There are clair stories to the effect that the flow-through effect extends to law enforcement and their spouses, because of widespread practice of unprotected jail rape of sex workers.

Suppression of Data on HIV infection

Data on HIV infection in the United States have been suppressed …

Link: “Compendium: HIV / AIDS Pandemic, and Data Suppression by the Centers for Disease Control,” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 10 July 2016; updated … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-5QE ..

Why is this? It is possible that HIV incidence began to step up in 2014, and that many more people are involved than is generally known. Whether this is true, or not, can only be determined when the facts are, by some intrepid Soul in the Centers for Disease Control, finally brought to the light of public scrutiny.

Summary

From this I conclude that  the flow-through effect from sex work involves a broad range of people. It affects men who frequent sex workers. But also, women and children. And possibly many more people than published data have led us to believe.

CONCLUSIONS REGARDING THE ISSUE OF REQUIRING SAFE SEX FOR ACTORS IN THE PORNOGRAPHY INDUSTRY

  • Sex workers frequently act in pornography films for extra income.
  • If they do not practice safe sex, then they will get HIV.
  • If the health of sex workers is not protected, the flow-through groups will get HIV. This might include you and me.
  • And so, it is in our own best interest, and for the common good, that the health of actors in the pornography industry be protected.

In love, light and joy,
I Am of the Stars

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FOOTNOTE

(1) ‘Canabae’ were the children of camp followers … women or slaves … of the Roman legion.

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Proposition 60, pornography, condoms, safe sex, sex workers, societal expectations, sex taboos, blame, judgment, disempowerment of sex workers, worker safety, public safety, HIV, STDs, HIV pandemic, social issues, projection, projective blame, psychology, snuff films, snuff, law enforcement, crime, human rights, human trafficking, government, United States, common good,

Surgical Glove Perforation, HIV / AIDS, and Hepatitis . by Alice B. Clagett

Filmed on 3 October 2015; published on 7 October 2015; revised on 6 July 2017

  • VIDEO BY ALICE
  • SUMMARY OF THE VIDEO
    • 15% Incidence of Surgical Glove Perforations Over 7 Months
    • Might Surgeons Infect Patients with HIV or Hepatitis During Operations?
    • Has Surgical ‘Double Gloving’ Reduced Infectious Disease Transmission to Surgeons During Operations?
    • What Is the Risk That Surgeons Who Have Hepatitis or HIV Will Infect Their Patients?
    • Might ‘Double Condoming’ Reduce Transmission of HIV and Other STDs?
    • Sheltering of Doctors with Substance Abuse Issues by the Medical Profession?
  • MORE INFORMATION

Dear Ones,

Here is another community health video. The topic is surgery, the likelihood of surgical glove perforation, the possibility of blood diseases such as HIV and hepatitis being transmitted from patient to surgeon (or vice versa), and other topics along that line. The question is raised, whether findings on prevalence of surgical glove perforation, and the recommendation of surgical double gloving using latex gloves, might be helpful in making guidelines about safe condom use.

A reorganized and edited Summary follows the video. I feel the Summary is better phrased than the video.

VIDEO BY ALICE

SUMMARY OF THE VIDEO

Hello, Dear Ones, it’s Alice. I Am of the Stars.

15% Incidence of Surgical Glove Perforations Over 7 Months

I remember, years ago I was working at the Jules Stein Eye Institute at UCLA … http://www.jsei.org … as editor and librarian there. And one of the doctors there, Leonard Apt, MD, along with Kevin M. Miller, MD, did a very interesting scientific paper on perforation of surgical gloves during operations …

Link: “Occult Glove Perforation during Ophthalmic Surgery,” by Leonard Apt, MD, and (by invitation) Kevin M. Miller, MD … http://europepmc.org/backend/ptpmcrender.fcgi?accid=PMC1298427&blobtype=pdf ..

In the paper, if I understand it correctly, Drs. Apt and Miller found a 15.0% incidence of surgically induced glove perforations over 7 months.

Might Surgeons Infect Patients with HIV or Hepatitis During Operations?

From this I deduced the possible danger to doctors of their being infected with HIV or hepatitis while they were wearing surgical gloves while doing operations. To calculate the probability of infection, a separate study would be needed (and perhaps has been performed since then).

Has Surgical ‘Double Gloving’ Reduced Infectious Disease Transmission to Surgeons During Operations?

I think that, after the article by Drs. Apt and Miller was put out, there was a practice, after that, of surgeons double gloving, so as to mitigate the risk of surgeons contracting a blood disease during an operation.

What Is the Risk That Surgeons Who Have Hepatitis or HIV Will Infect Their Patients?

At the time that I read that article, the thought came up to me, that there must be a risk factor also for patients, if the physician has contracted HIV or hepatitis. I do not know if a study has been done on that, or what might be done in a situation where a physician has HIV or AIDS or hepatitis of any sort, or is carrying some infection that might infect a patient who is being operated on. And I can see a number of issues there.

  • Of course, the most obvious issue has to do with the patient’s health.
  • But there is also the loss of all the talent, and years of expertise, and experience of the physician, if he should stop doing surgeries because of his blood having been infected.

So I see that the issue of what to do about the possibility of surgeon’s blood being infected during surgery, is a very complicated one. And I do not have a solution to offer as regards that. I do not know what to say.

Might ‘Double Condoming’ Reduce Transmission of HIV and Other STDs?

That article got me thinking … as the editor of scientific publications over there … about how that finding might apply to the wearing of condoms during sexual intercourse. I think that there is some congruence there.

If ‘double gloving’ during surgery has proven helpful in preventing transmission of infectious diseases during operations, then ‘double condoming’ might help prevent contracting infectious diseases transmitted through body fluids during sexual intercourse, unless a person already knows that their partner is without risk.

Sheltering of Doctors with Substance Abuse Issues by the Medical Profession?

I would be more likely to talk about the difficulties faced, in the current medical milieu, when a physician has a dependence on alcohol, or recreational drugs, that interferes with sound judgment or deft manipulation of tools during surgery.

And I remember, years ago (I do not know about now), hearing that the medical profession took very good care of its doctors, and would look the other way, is what I had read, if they had troubles like that, until some patients had actually died because of it. And then, only at the insistence of patients or maybe a lawsuit, or something like that, would action ever be taken, and that action, the article said, was too light. (1)

I do not know if all that is true or not. I do not know if doctors look the other way, or if they have a sound way of policing the efficacy; the efficiency and professionality of people that are doing surgeries and practicing medicine. It is always something to look at, even if there are good measures in place … There are always ways to improve, do you not think?

And when we think about it, our greatest loyalty to a group has to do with seeing to the best, the highest ideals for everyone in the group. The highest professional ideals, and the greatest good for the people that really need help, that belong to the group. Rather than blind loyalty. Do you not you think? That is what I think, anyway.

In love, light and joy,
I Am of the Stars

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FOOTNOTE

(1) The reading I did on this was in a general and somewhat speculative article; it was not written about the place where I worked at that time.

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MORE INFORMATION

Link: “Does ‘Safe Sex’ Prevent HIV / AIDS Transmission?” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 14 June 2018 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-9qP ..

Link: “Overview of Surgical Risk, HIV / AIDS, Hepatitis, and Hard Drugs,” by Alice B. Clagett, 17 October 2016, updated on 6 July 2017 … http://wp.me/p2Rkym-6gY ..

Link: “Overview of the HIV / AIDS Pandemic, and of Data Suppression by the Centers for Disease Control,” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 10 July 2016; updated on 14 June 2018 … http://wp.me/p2Rkym-5QE .. 

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Creative Commons License
Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

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condom perforation, Dr. Kevin Miller, Dr. Leonard Apt, hepatitis risk, HIV risk, patient risk, physician addiction, safe sex, surgical glove perforation, Kevin M. Miller MD, Leonard Apt MD, community health, AIDS, surgery,