Published on 1 December 2015; revised 2 March 2019
- HEPATITIS C AND THE OPIOID EPIDEMIC IN THE UNITED STATES
- FIVE TYPES OF HEPATITIS AND THEIR PREVENTION OR TREATMENT
- THE OPIOID OVERDOSE EPIDEMIC IN THE UNITED STATES
- HOW TEENS WHO USE INJECTION DRUGS CAN GET HIV AND HCV BECAUSE CLEAN SYRINGES CANNOT BE OBTAINED
- RECOMMENDATIONS BY THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION FOR HIV PREVENTION AND TREATMENT
- DISCLOSURE ON THE HIV/AIDS PANDEMIC AND A COVERUP BY THE CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL
HEPATITIS C AND THE OPIOID EPIDEMIC IN THE UNITED STATES
Here is good info on Hepatitis C (HCV); apparently only 1% of cases are diagnosed. HCV incidence is increasing because of the expanding opioid epidemic in the US. HCV can lead to death; but if it is treated with antiviral meds, it can be cured in 90% of cases. The trick is to test for it in time …
Also, among injection drug users (IDUs), many have both HIV and HCV …
Link: “Public health surveillance system may underestimate cases of acute hepatitis C infection: Study of data gathered in Massachusetts indicates less than one percent of diagnosed cases met CDC reporting criteria” …
Hepatitis C is considered to be a health problem throughout the globe. Worldwide, there are 71 million carriers. Every year, there are 1.75 million new cases. For more on this, see …
Link: “Hepatitis C,” by World Health Organization, 18 July 2018 … https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/hepatitis-c ..
FIVE TYPES OF HEPATITIS AND THEIR PREVENTION OR TREATMENT
There are five types of hepatitis; they are contracted in various ways. Hepatitis A and B can be prevented with vaccines; the United States is not at risk for these, but travelers to other countries are.
Link: “Hepatitis,” in Healthline … http://www.healthline.com/health/hepatitis ..
Hepatitis C is treatable with antiviral medications.
Link: “Hepatitis C,” by the World Health Organization (WHO), 18 July 2018 … https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/hepatitis-c ..
Hepatitis D is treated with alpha interferon …
Link: “Hepatitis D,” by the World Health Organization (WHO), 23 July 2018 … https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/hepatitis-d ..
Hepatitis E is usually not treated, but resolves on its own; I have found no maps on these.
Link: “Hepatitis E,” by the World Health Organization (WHO), 19 September 2018 https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/hepatitis-e ..
For Hepatitis A, the geographic areas at risk appear to be Asia, the Middle East, Africa, and Central and South America.
Link: “Hepatitis A,” by WHO, 19 September 2018 … https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/hepatitis-a ..
For Hepatitis B, the geographic areas at risk appear to be Asia, the Middle East, Aftica, Greenland, Northern Canada and Alaska, northern South America, and Central America.
Link: “Heptatitis B,” by World Health Organization, 18 July 2018 … https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/hepatitis-b ..
THE OPIOID OVERDOSE EPIDEMIC IN THE UNITED STATES
Link: “Opioid Addiction 2016 Facts & Figures,” by the American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM) … https://www.asam.org/docs/default-source/advocacy/opioid-addiction-disease-facts-figures.pdf ..
HOW TEENS WHO USE INJECTION DRUGS CAN GET HIV AND HCV BECAUSE CLEAN SYRINGES CANNOT BE OBTAINED
Teenagers can avoid pregnancy by using contraceptives. Using condoms helps them avoid STDs. Injection drug users who use clean syringes can avoid hepatitis and HIV transmission. But injection drug users often cannot obtain clean syringes, either because laws prevent it, or syringe sellers, will not sell to them, even though it is legal. And so, teens may share syringes without a thought to safety. Or they may use bleach to clean them for reuse, and the cleaning may be insufficient. Or they may pay much more than is necessary to buy syringes on the black market. Or they may ask acquaintances who are diabetic to provide them with syringes.
Link: “Pregnancies Averted Among U.S. Teenagers by the Use of Contraceptives,” by James G. Kahn, Claire D. Brindis, and Dana A. Glei, in “Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health,” Volume 31, Issue 1, January/February 1998, pages 29-34 … https://doi.org/10.1363/3102999 … Volume 31, Issue 1, January/February 1998 Pages 29-34 … https://www.guttmacher.org/pubs/journals/3102999.html#32 ..
The latest UN AIDS figures for Adult HIV prevalence may found here: (3). The highest prevalence is in south Africa. Some of the lowest incidences are in southeast Asia. Most of South America, and all of Central America, Canada, and Australia are in the moderately low range. The United States, including Alaska, is in the mid range. Here is an older gif which I feel is nevertheless very intriguing …
Link: “The Global Geography of HIV: 20 Years of Change –in 1 Gif,” by Brian Fung, 29 November 2012 … https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2012/11/the-global-geography-of-hiv-20-years-of-change-in-1-gif/265706/ ..
RECOMMENDATIONS BY THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION FOR HIV PREVENTION AND TREATMENT
WHO feels strongly that a good approach to HIV prevention and treatment is to work toward reduction of harm. WHO has come up with suggestions for needle and syringe programs. They also suggest opioid substitution therapy.
Link: “Drug Use and Viral Infections (HIV, Hepatitis),” by NIH National Institute on Drug Abuse: Advanced Addiction Science, revised April 2018 … https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/drug-use-viral-infections-hiv-hepatitis ..
DISCLOSURE ON THE HIV/AIDS PANDEMIC AND A COVERUP BY THE CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL
My overview on the HIV Pandemic, and on data suppression by the Centers for Disease Control, is here …
Link: “Overview of the HIV/AIDS Pandemic, and of Data Suppression by the Centers for Disease Control,” by Alice B. Clagett, 10 July 2016 … http://wp.me/p2Rkym-5QE ..
Here are others of my overviews on the topic of HIV/AIDS …
Link: “Overview: Calls to Action regarding the HIV/AIDS Pandemic,” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 2 March 2019 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-bQu ..
Link: “Compendium: HIV/AIDS Pandemic,” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 2 March 2019 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-bPl ..
Link: “Overview: One-Upmanship and the Human Energy System,” by Alice B. Clagett, published on 9 July 2017 … https://wp.me/p2Rkym-7qP ..
Link: “Overview of Surgical Risk, HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis, and Hard Drugs,” by Alice B. Clagett, 17 October 2016 … http://wp.me/p2Rkym-6gY ..
In love, light and joy,
Alice B. Clagett
I Am of the Stars
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addictions, hard drugs, hepatitis, HIV, injection drug users, opioid epidemic, opioids, syringes, teen health, WHO,